NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Completes Notes Part 1

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  • 2/3rd people in agriculture

  • Food grains

  • Raw material for industry

Now first and the foremost thing to understand here is agriculture is important to study specifically in a country like India where nearly 2/3rd of the population survives or thrives on agricultural activities or allied activities.

Now agriculture is important not only because we get food grain but it is a kind of raw it provides raw material for the various industries, so you have the kind of primary sector that is important here and this primary sector is a sources of a raw material for the secondary sector activities.

Primitive Farming

  • In small areas

  • Primitive tools – hoe, sticks

  • Monsoon dependent

  • Slash and burn agriculture

  • ‘Milpa’ in Mexico

  • ‘Masole’ in Central Africa

  • ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela

  • ‘Roca’ in Brazil

  • ‘Ladang’ in Indonesia

  • ‘Ray’ in Vietnam

Now we will first understand the various basic types of agricultural activities the first that we talk about today is the primitive farming this is a kind of farming which is which occurs in small patches of land you have primitive tools or not modernized they are kind of hoes or sticks that you are using to blow the farm. It’s highly dependent on the monsoon activities the most common activity here is the slash and burn agriculture so you have a piece of land you grow crops on this land, you burn this land and move to a next farm in next season you leave this land as such you leave this land fallow and then what would happen is within one or two year or two or three years this land would gain regain its fertility and then you would move further and come back on to the same patch of land

Since you are moving around we call this activities as Jhumming’ activity in the northeast areas of India now this slash and burn activity or slash and burn agriculture is known by various names in various parts of the world, so you have for the Mexico and central Africa both the name starts with M however it’s important that you remember the correct name for the correct region so you have Milpa’ in Mexico and ‘Masole’ in Central Africa, ‘Conuco’ in Venzuela, ‘Roca’ in Brazil, ‘Ladang’ in Indonesia, ‘Ray’ in Vietnam so on, so all these names you must and must remember. So these are the international name like for the slash and burn agriculture.

  • ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’ in Madhya Pradesh

  • ‘Podu’ or ‘Penda’ in Andhra Pradesh

  • ‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ or Bringa’ in Orissa

  • ‘Kumari’ in Western Ghats

  • ‘Valre’ or ‘Waltre’ in SE Rajasthan

  • ‘Khil’ in the Himalayan belt

  • ‘Kuruwa’ in Jharkhand

  • ‘Jhumming’ in the North-eastern region

  • Pamlou in Manipur

  • Dipa in Bastar district of Chattishgarh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

When it comes to India we do not have a unified name across the country in different parts of India you have the same practice that is known by different names and this is a kind of commonly asked question for most of the objective examinations so for example in Madhya Pradesh you call this as ‘Bewar’ or ‘Dahiya’, however again close to Madhya Pradesh, you have Chhattisgarh in Chhattisgarh you call it as Dipa, Manipur it is Pamlou, in the North-eastern states as we said it is as ‘Jhumming’ cultivation so if there can be a kind of short note write a note on Jhumming’ cultivation or write a note on ‘Pama Dabi’ or ‘Koman’ so all these are kind of slash and burn agriculture, and these are the different names for those which are popularly practiced in different parts of the nation so you must and must remember this.