NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Completes Notes Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • High population
  • Labor intensive
  • More chemicals and irrigation
  • Small landholdings- division of land

Now next is the difference between the intensive subsistence farming and the extensive farming, when we say intensive subsistence farming that means we have small plot of length that small plot of land is highly populated so you have high population density that is present in that land area the land holdings are small there is more chemicals and irrigation practices that are used however and then extensive agriculture you have huge patch of land commonly seen in the areas of let՚s say United States.

So you have huge areas you would have a kind of single farmhouse within this region all the agriculture would be mechanized that would be done by tractors and big machineries, however here it՚s mainly labor intensive because it՚s such a small patch of land that you cannot use mechanized inputs in this so this is the basic difference between the intensive and the extensive farming.

Commercial Farming

  • High HYV, fertilizer, chemicals
  • Large land
  • Mechanized
  • Rice - commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab; in Orissa- subsistence

Again extensive farming is also known as commercial farming so rice for example is practices commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, however in parts of Odisha the same crop is practiced as subsistence the world subsistence farming again denotes one specific thing that is you are growing enough to meet the need of your family and PN group however you are not in a position to supply more or you are not producing for the purpose of exports.

So when you are talking about subsistence farming it՚s mainly predominantly satisfying the local needs of the agricultural produce.

Plantation Cropping

  • Single crop over large area
  • interface of agriculture and industry
  • Large land
  • Capital intensive
  • Migrant laborers
  • Tea in Assam and N. Bengal
  • Coffee in Karnataka
  • Good transport to reach market – Market oriented

Now the next important is plantation cropping, plantation cropping usually you have a single monocultural crop that is grown on a huge patch of land so it՚s a kind of interface between agriculture and industries so you have large set of land its capital intensive you are putting in lot of money when it started as with the british era however now most of the tea plantation are owned by Indian only most of the people who work on these plantation farms are migrant laborers for example you have tea plantations in Assam and north West Bengal again you have coffee plantation in Karnataka and for all these what you need is a very good transport to reach the market so it՚s a kind of very market oriented activity.

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