NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Completes Notes Part 3

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Agriculture

Paddy (3 crops in Assam, Bihar & Orissa - Aus, Aman and Boro), maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean

Image of Crop Zaid, Kharif and Rabi

Image of Crop Zaid, Kharif and Rabi

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Now this is very important slide and if you remember this slide you are sure to solve most of the objective question where most of the people are stuck up so there are predominantly three seasons the Kharif season, Rabi season and Zaid season. For your convenience I have taken a single color for each of the season. So there is no confusion left.

Now Kharif crop is sown as monsoon and harvested in October or September as soon as the Kharif crop is gone you have Rabi crop which is sown in the winter season and harvested in the summer in the month of April to June the intermediate period between the Rabi and the Kharif is occupied by Zaid. So Zaid is predominantly vegetation, fodder crops, watermelon, muskmelon, cucumbers so all those are part of Zaid so that is the smallest and its own the next is Rabi.

The Rabi is the predominant crops are Wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard, now important to note here is among the pulses there are few pulses which are part of Rabi crop however few pulses which are part of Kharif crop, so you have peas and grams which are part of Rabi however tur, moong, urad are part of Kharif crop, the areas where Rabi’s grown as mainly Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir, Uttaranchal, and Uttar Pradesh.

The remaining parts you have predominantly Kharif crop, again Kharif crop you have rice that is grown in Bihar, Assam and Odisha, so you have three season of rice and they are known as Aus, Aman and Boro so these are the three crops of rice that are grown or paddy so rice is also known as paddy so those are the three crops of rice that are grown under the Kharif cultivation and they are known as Aus, Aman and Boro that is again important cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean all are part of Kharif crop. Now let’s talks about one by one crop in detail.

Rice

  • Largest after China

  • Kharif crop

  • High temperature (above 25°C) and high humidity

  • Annual rainfall above 100 cm (if less – irrigation)

  • Plains of north and NE India, coast & deltaic region

  • By canal & tubewell in Raj, Punjab, Haryana & west UP

So first is rice after China, India is the largest producer as we said it’s a Kharif crop it requires a high temperature more than 25°C with high humidity the rainfall should be more than 100cm if it is less paddy cultivation is possible only by agriculture most of the place of north and north east the cost and the delta areas have rice cultivation the areas of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana & West Uttar Pradesh and parts of Gujarat have shown good cultivation of rice by means of canal and tube well arrogation.

Wheat

  • Second after rice

  • North and NW India

  • Rabi crop

  • Cool growing season

  • Bright sunshine at ripening

  • Rain 50-75 cm

  • 2 zones - Ganga-Satluj plains in NW & black soil in Deccan

  • Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of MP

Now wheat cultivation, it’s a Rabi crop so you have it comes next to rice in terms of production north in northwest of India you have the wheat cultivation it occurs in the cold growing season it requires right amount of sunshine when it is ripening the rainfall is moderate from 50 to 75cm there are two zones Ganga-Satluj plains in North West & black soil in Deccan.