NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Completes Notes Part 4 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • Jowar, bajra, ragi – coarse grains - High nutrition
  • Jowar – 3rd in area & production, rain-fed, in moist areas
  • Jowar – Largest producer is Maharashtra; Karnataka, AP & MP
  • Bajra - sandy & shallow black soil
  • Bajra – Largest is Rajasthan; then UP, Maharashtra, Gujarat & Haryana
  • Ragi – Dry, grows on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils; has iron, calcium & roughage
  • Ragi – Largest is Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, also in HP, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh

The next is millets, now millets the three important millets that will be discussing today are Jowar, bajra and ragi, ragi is commonly grown in south India so you have kind of red black and shallow loamy soil that you have ragi production. Ragi is rich in iron and calcium, it is highest production is seen in Karnataka followed by Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, there are few traces of ragi that are found in Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.

Bajra is mainly grown in sandy & shallow black soil commonly seen in areas of Rajasthan followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra so Bajra you have R here and R for Rajasthan so you have highest producer as Rajasthan.

Again Jowar inverse the letter W so you have M so Maharashtra is the highest producer take a note don՚t confuse this inversion as the Madhya Pradesh so that՚s some of the common mistakes that most of the candidates do so make sure you are just inversing it and you are trying to remember that when you inversing its W becomes M so you have Jowar for highest production in Maharashtra so all these are coarse grains coarse grains have rich fiber content and they have high nutrition value.


  • Food and fodder
  • Kharif crop
  • Temperature 21°C to 27°C
  • Old alluvial soil
  • In Bihar - grown in rabi season also.
  • Karnataka, UP, Bihar, AP & MP

The next Maize it՚s food and a former crop predominantly a Kharif crop however in Bihar it is a Rabi crops so all the exception that are coming here are very important so for example Maize is a Rabi crop in Bihar is important because it is a Kharif crop that is commonly known and that՚s can be asked but this is much more important when it comes from examination perspective.


  • Largest producer and consumer in world
  • Protein source
  • Tur (arhar) , urad, moong, masur, peas and gram
  • All leguminous (nitrogen fixation) except tur
  • Can grow in dry conditions
  • MP, UP, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka

Again pulses, India is the largest producer and consumer of the world pulses it is a high source of protein diet -all are leguminous except tur this exception again is important so all the pulses are predominantly leguminous which has nitrogen fixing except tur, they can grow in dry seasons and these are the north and northwest areas are predominant areas of pulses production.


  • Tropical & subtropical crop
  • Hot and humid climate
  • Temperature of 21°C to 27°C
  • Annual rainfall between 75cm-100 cm
  • India second after Brazil
  • UP, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, AP, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana

The next is sugar cane, sugar cane is grown both in north India and south India, now the temperature is from 21°C to 27°C, rainfall between75cm-100 cm India is a second largest producer after Brazil, it is kind of tropical and subtropical crop, you have parts of north India and south India, where you have sugar cane production and you have sugar and get jiggery as the products that you get from sugar cane industry.

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