NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Completes Notes Part 5

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Agriculture

Oilseeds

  • Largest producer in the world

  • 12% of total area

  • Groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower

  • Groundnut – kharif, accounts for 50% of oilseeds, Largest is AP then T. Nadu, Karnataka & Gujarat

  • Linseed & Mustard – Rabi (mainly Maharashtra)

  • Sesamum - kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south India.

  • Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.

The next is oilseeds again India is the largest producer in the world it occupies 12% of the total areas the common oilseeds that you can see are Groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower. The few most important we would be discussing here are linseed and mustard important to note they are Rabi crops and predominantly grown in Maharashtra Sesamum is a Kharif crop in the north and Rabi crop in the south so again this is important so you have Sesamum as a Rabi crop in the south India and Kharif crop in the north India, castor is both a Rabi as a Kharif crop, groundnut for 50% of the oilseeds production the largest groundnuts production is seen in Andhra pradesh that is again important.

Tea

  • Plantation

  • Beverage crop

  • Now owned by Indians

  • Tropical and sub-tropical climates

  • Deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter

  • Warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year

  • Frequent showers evenly year round for growth of tender leaves.

  • Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri in WB, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

  • HP, Uttaranchal, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura

  • Largest producer as well as exporter

Coffee

  • 4% of world production

  • Arabica variety brought from Yemen

  • Started in Babubudan hills

  • Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu

The next is coffee, 4% of the world coffee is supplied by India it is Started in Babubudan hills, it is grown as a plantation crop mainly in the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu the junction of this three you have the Nilgiris and where you have the coffee production the first variety of coffee that was a Arabica came from Yemen.

Horticulture

  • Largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world

  • 13% of world’s vegetables

  • Mangoes of Maharashtra, AP, UP, WB

  • Oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya)

  • Bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu

  • Litchi and guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

  • Pineapples of Meghalaya

  • Grapes of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra

  • Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of J & K and HP

The next is horticulture again India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. You have 13% of the words vegetables that are grown now these are the some basic areas so Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts are commonly seen in Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, you have pineapple in Meghalaya, Grapes in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, Banana in southern India and northeast you have oranges in Nagpur and Cherrapunjee is important so Nagpur oranges are famous but Cherrapunjee is again important for oranges so that’s important to note So wherever you have kind of some deviations from the normal that you have heard of those are important.

Rubber

  • Equatorial crop

  • 5th in world in natural rubber production

  • Moist and humid climate

  • Rainfall of more than 200 cm

  • Temperature above 25°C

  • Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya

Then comes the rubber crop from the rubber crop you get the latex so that latex is used for rubber industry it is a kind of equatorial crop India stands 5th in the world grown in the moist and humid condition if the rainfall is more than 200cm and temperature is more than 25°C commonly seen in the southern coastal states and then you have Andaman and Nicobar and Garo hills in Meghalaya that are important for rubber production.