NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Completes Notes Part 6

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Agriculture

Fibers

  • Cotton – 3rd largest in world, dry black soil of Deccan, high temp, light rain, 210 frost free days, kharif, 6-8 months to mature; Maharashtra, Gujarat, MP, Karnataka, AP, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and UP

  • Jute – golden fiber, well-drained soil, high temp., West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya – high cost & now shift to nylon

  • Hemp

  • Silk – Silkworms - sericulture

When it comes to fiber there are four major fibers Cotton, Jute, Hemp and Silk, out of these only Silk is derived from Silkworm origin animal produced this practice of Silk worm rearing and cultivation of Silk is known as sericulture. Cotton, Jute and Hemp are all obtained from plant. Jute is also known as golden fiber. Now the basic thing to know here is when there was division of India from Bangladesh took place most of the industries remained in India while the production units remained in Bangladesh, so there was a kind of decline in the jute production and the jute industry suffered heavy losses however later on it was recovered it was it is also known as golden fiber.

Again jute is being replaced by synthetic and artificial fibers because production of jute involves higher cost the last is cotton the most important India is the third largest producer grown technically in the black soil of the Deccan areas requires high temperature light rainfall and the most important is 210 days of frost free season so you have 210 days that should be frost free days it’s again a Kharif crop it requires 6 to 8 month to mature and these are the major areas where you have cotton that is grown mainly in the Deccan belt.

Reforms

  • Collectization

  • Consolidation of holdings – 1st Five Year Plan

  • Cooperation

  • Abolition of zamindari

  • Green & White Revolution – but concentrated to few areas

  • Crop insurance & Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS)

  • Grameen banks

  • Cheap loans & Kisan credit cards

  • Gandhiji- Gram Swarajya

  • Vinoba Bhave – Bhoodan- Gramdam (bloodless revolution) – 80 acre land by Ram Chandra Reddy t0 80 landless laborers

The next is the various reforms in agriculture now when it comes reform you have insurance credit card schemes for farmers you have white and green revolution that took place but that was concentrated to few areas it was not able to spread consolidation of land is important now because with the smaller farms it is difficult to diversify agriculture and produce or mechanized agriculture so you have consolidation of land holdings that started with 1st Five Year Plan the cooperative farming abolition of zamindari, Grameen banks establishment, now Gandhiji talked about Gram Swarajy and Vinoba Bhave focused on Bhoodan and Gramdam which was also known as bloodless revolution so under this what happened was there was Mr. Ram Chandra Reddy, who divided his 80 acre of land among 80 landless laborers so there was a kind of Bhoodan and Gramdam that took place so again this is important.

Agriculture - Role in Economy

  • Share in GDP declining since 1951

  • Employment to 263 million people (with >50% as agri. laborers)

  • Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

  • Agricultural universities

  • Veterinary services and animal breeding centres

  • Horticulture development; R & D

Issues

Farmers facing international competition

Decrease in subsidies

Decrease in import duties on agricultural products

Farmers withdrawing investment from agriculture

Agriculture plays an important role in Indian economy however share in terms of GDP is declining as we said in the class and economics class chain where we talked about that we have more than 50% of the people who are engaged in agricultural activity but they generate less than 25% of the GDP that means there is a kind huge unemployment or a kind of underemployment and disguise unemployment that is present in agriculture to reforms agriculture, we need to established more agricultural universities pursue research and development veterinary services and animal breeding services and horticultural development.

However there are certain issues that agriculture is facing first of all the farmers are withdrawing the investment in agriculture they are trying to invest more in allied activities there is decrease in the subsides, higher competition from the foreign market and decrease in the import duty you have cheaper agricultural producers that are coming from other countries so that is decreasing the agricultural output or the agricultural production affecting the agriculture in India.