NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Completes Notes Part 7 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Food Security

  • To the remote areas
  • By Buffer stock & PDS (at subsidized price by ration shops) by FCI
  • FCI provides Minimum Support Price to farmers
  • Food to common man at affordable rate
  • Increase food production
  • Free trade in grains for massive employment
  • Shift from food crops to fruits & vegetables – led to decrease in land under crop
  • Fertilizers shows good result but now are culprits of land degradation
  • Unsustainable pumping – reduced water in aquifers

Now food security we have already covered this under economics class 9 the basic idea is India as a country tries to provide food to each and every common man at an affordable price now what does government do to ensure this government sets up the minimum support price that is given to the farmer in lieu of the food green that is purchased by the government so let՚s say even there is a drought here government would provide that minimum support price to the farmer so that he has a decent standard of living.

Now once the government has produced that the government would supply to the below poverty line people mainly through the fair price shop or the ration shops and this system is known as the public distribution system so public distribution system along with the buffer stall that is maintained helps under or helps to provide food security to the farmers as well as to the common man at an affordable price.

However of late it was discovered there are numerous drawbacks that scheme, this scheme is facing because this food grain that is coming in is of low quality there is no proper storage and again when it is supplied it is supplied into open market and there are intermediate trees who gain out of it so these were some of the drawbacks that food security program witness, however again there has been a change in the trend now the trend is shifting from predominantly a food crop, we are moving towards horticultural activities or growing more of vegetables and fruits.

This is leading to decrease in the amount of cultivation of the pulses so you have lesser amount of food grains that are diverted to the FCI for public distribution again fertilizers used to show very good results for cropping of recent it has been discovered that it is because of these fertilizers only that the land is being degraded, so now we are moving on or switching on to organic farming so there is a kind of shift in the agricultural practices that is seen again the groundwater pumping had been an important source of watering in most of the parts of India because it was sustainable in a level now it has gone beyond the sustainable level the water tables have gone deep and there is more issues of water scarcity on water shortages and most a part of the world.


  • Cotton belts – attracted Britishers (Manchester & Liverpool)
  • Champaran – farmers forced to grow indigo & no foodgrains for families
  • Improve marginal farmers
  • Gene Revolution – genetic engineering – hybrid seeds
  • Organic farming – neem leaves
  • Diverse crops from cereal to high value crops like fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables (import cereal & export like Italy & Israel)
  • Bio-diesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less irrigation than rice or sugarcane

What is the impact of globalization on agriculture when it comes to the impact of globalization let՚s talk about something from the historical background, so cotton belts in India were the main attraction areas for Britishers from where they took the cotton and trying to export or send it to Manchester & Liverpool which develop as cotton textile centers later on there were kind of marginal farmers that developed around and these marginal farmers need to improve so there were movements like Champaran movement of people in Champaran were forced to grow indigo because indigo could earn them good money however these people in the local forms wanted to grow the local crops or the food crops to sustain their families but they were forced to grow indigo so these were some of the initial phases which is started with the plantation and a kind of forced cropping mechanism that started off recent there has been a change in a pattern.

Now we are shifting more towards kind of gene revolution on genetic engineering where we are bringing in more hybrid seeds which can produce more and shorter duration and the output could be much higher there is diversification of crops from cereal crops to high-value crops so we are moving to crops like fruits medicinal crops, herbs, flowers and vegetables and what is happening is of present we are thinking of importing the cereals and exporting these high-value crops because when we are exporting these crops we can get more money in the economy and we have to spend less to import the cereals so this model has already been practiced by countries like Italy and Israel, Italy is predominantly the Mediterranean country so you have most of the vine and the citrus cultivation that is seen here again there has been move to Bio-diesel crops like jatropha and jojoba which require less irrigation and can grow in dry condition, so these are some of the changes that occur with the time and there have been an impact of globalization because of opening up we are trying to get models from other countries and moving on to high value crops for agricultural activities.

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