NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Minerals & Energy Resources Completes Notes Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Minerals & Energy Resources

Mineral Occur as ORE

  • Rocks are combination of minerals
  • Colors, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density
  • Igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals – in cracks, crevices, faults or joints.
  • Smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes
  • Sedimentary rocks - occur in beds or layers – gypsum, potash & sodium salt
  • Alluvial deposits in valley floor; placer – gold, silver, tin, platinum
  • Ocean water – salt, magnesium, bromine
  • Coal mining – Jowai & Cherrapunjee by long narrow tunnel – Rat hole mining
  • Sedimentary rock in Assam and Gujarat – petroleum deposit
Types of Rocks

Now moving on types of rocks as we said, now Igneous and Metamorphic rocks the minerals that occur in the Igneous and Metamorphic rocks occur in the cracks or wings which are present or the joints, if they are smaller they are known as veins and if they are bigger they are known as lodes.

Next come the sedimentary rocks, sedimentary rocks as we known are arranged in layers and found close to the water bodies so you have kind of alluvial soil deposits that is seen. Common example here would be placer deposits and what all minerals are found is placer deposits, you have gold, silver, tin and platinum which are mainly found as placer deposits.

Now there are some minerals which occurs beneath the oceans, how salt the various salt the sodium salt, potassium salt, you have magnesium, bromine which occurs below the ocean water then you have coal mining, now coal mining is a kind of unique component of minerals because coal is buried by under high pressure so there is a kind of coal deposits which are seen from the Ancient time and if this coal deposits is done through a narrow tunnel it is known as rat hole mining as seen in Cherrapunjee and Jowai.

You have numerous sedimentary rocks deposits that are seen in Assam and Gujarat and this sedimentary rock deposits are known for the petroleum reserves they have, so most of the petroleum reserves are seen in the sedimentary rocks.

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