NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Minerals & Energy Resources Completes Notes Part 3 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Minerals & Energy Resources

Now next things note here is the classification for the minerals.

Types of Minerals

The minerals could be classified as metallic, non-metallic or energy minerals, when we say metallic minerals we can say those which include iron or are kind of known as ferrous, non-ferrous and precious. So precious is known is gold, silver and platinum. Non-ferrous would be copper, lead, tin. And iron manganese and nickel are ferrous and they have some kind of magnetic properties associated with them.

The non-metallic once include mica, salt, potash and under energy minerals you have conventional energy resources and non-conventional that we discusses, so conventional once form the coal, petroleum and the natural gas.

Iron Ore – Ferrous

  • Magnetite is finest – 70 % iron – has magnetic property
  • Hematite – lower iron (50 - 60 %) – industrial use
  • Top producer – Karnataka > Orissa > Chhattisgarh
  • Orissa (Badampahar mines in Mayurbhanj & Kendujhar) -Jharkhand belt (Gua & Noamundi mines in Singhbhum) : Hematite
  • Durg-Bastar (Bailadila -14 deposits) -Chandrapur belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra - Hematite - Exported to Japan & South Korea via Vishakapatnam port.
  • Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka - Kudermukh – 100 % export unit and amongst largest in the world. Transported as slurry by pipe to port near Mangalore.
  • Maharashtra (Ratnagiri) -Goa belt - very high quality & exported by Marmagao port

Now before we start with iron there is very interesting question that India was nearly 5th largest exporter of iron few decades back but as a present it is kind of zero in terms of exports, why?

The basic reasons for this are?

  1. Many of mining sites which use to mine iron having close down due to environmental rules and regulations.
  2. The global demand for the iron has decreased.
  3. The duties on iron export have increase.
  4. There is kind of no proper labor and no proper trained labor and cheap labor for the industries.

So these are the some of the reasons which have led to decline of exports in iron from India.

Now in India basically you have two irons that are commonly seen the Magnetite and the hematite, magnetite is finest iron with the 70 % of the iron components under has good magnetic property. However magnetite composition in India is very low, In India we predominantly have hematite which has lower iron content is mainly use for industrial purposes, now in terms of producers you have Karnataka as top followed by Orissa and Chhattisgarh.

Now here are the four major areas where you have iron production that takes place, so Badampahar mines in Mayurbhanj & Kendujhar in Orissa, then you have in Jharkhand Gua & Noamundi mines in Singhbhum all this mine have hematite deposits.

Then you have region of Chhattisgarh the Bastar, Bailadila mine here you have 14 deposits are located, Chandrapur belt is again important and from here there was export to Japan and South Korea via the Vishakapatnam port. Now it is very important to note, you have Chhattisgarh that՚s the Bailadila mine, it use to export to Japan and south Korea to the eastern ages and through the eastern port that is Vishakapatnam so the iron producing region the exporting port and the exporting nation all the three are important. Then again Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur region in Karnataka it exports for Mangalore and exports nearly to the west coast, so the western countries, then you have Maharashtra- Ratnagiri and Goa they have high quality iron and it was again exported through Marmagao port near Goa, however of recent export from Goa have decline tremendously. The next is manganese.

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