NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Minerals & Energy Resources Completes Notes Part 4

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Minerals & Energy Resources

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Manganese – Ferrous

  • Used in steel and ferro-manganese alloy

  • 10 kg Mn used to make 1 ton steel

  • Used on bleaching powder, insecticide & paint

  • Orissa (1/3rd of total) > MP > Karnataka – production

The manganese is ferrous, it is used in iron and steel and in making the Ferro-manganese alloys, 10kg of manganese is used to make 1 ton of steel, now it is important to note first of all there are two different elements that is the manganese and the magnesium, so magnesium as we said obtain from ocean bottom, you have magnesium and when we talk about the ferrous metallic once you have manganese. So Magnesium is noted by Mg and Manganese is noted by Mn.

Now in terms of production Odisha is the largest producer of manganese followed by Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. It is used in paint industries, bleaching powder industries and to make an insecticide.

Copper – Non-Ferrous

  • India is deficient

  • Mainly used in cables, conductors & chemical ind.

  • Balaghat Mines (MP) – 52% production

  • Singhbhum in Jharkhand

  • Khetri in Rajasthan

Now copper is one of the non-ferrous metal. India is highly deficient in copper production, there are very specific mines that’s produce copper in India, it’s mainly use for electrical cabal lines and it’s a good conductor, Khetri in Rajasthan, Singhbhum in Jharkhand and Balaghat Mines in Madhya pradesh are the major producers of the copper of which Balaghat is producer more than half of the total production of the nation.

Bauxite – Non-Ferrous

  • Ore of Aluminum

  • Decomposition of rocks rich in aluminum silicates

  • Light, conductive and malleable

  • Highest production by Orissa (45% - max. in Panchpatmali in Koratpur), then Gujarat & Jharkhand

  • Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni

  • Napoleon III – used button & utensils of Al (lower people used gold & silver), then 30 years later Al used by beggars of France

Bauxite is an Ore of the Aluminum, it’s used in various conductive devices, and it is highly malleable, that means it can be easily beaten down in to sheets, then you have in terms of production the highest is Odisha followed by Gujarat and Jharkhand, in Odisha highest production comes from Koratpur within the Koratpur you have Panchpatmali region which has the highest production of Aluminum.

Then in Madhya Pradesh you have Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and region of Bilaspur-Katni that is the Chhattisgarh and the Madhya Pradesh region.

Now there is real interesting story about Aluminum, when Aluminum was first declared Napoleon-III, used to consider this to be kind of very precious matter and he used everything from buttons in dresses to pots in which food is served was to be made out of Aluminum and all the gold and silver he gave to the people who assistant him or the next in the line.

However of late 30 year down the line, Aluminum was used by beggars and France.