NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Minerals & Energy Resources Completes Notes Part 5 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Minerals & Energy Resources

Mica – Non-Metallic

  • Layered into sheets
  • Di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage
  • Northern edge of the Chottanagpur plateau.
  • Koderma, Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand
  • Ajmer – Rajasthan
  • Nellore – Andhra Pradesh

The next is Mica, Mica is again Non-Metallic in nature, it՚s found in sheets first of all, and it՚s used for insulating properties and creating a resistance to high voltage. So the major regions where Mica is mined in Chottanagpur plateau and the Hazaribagh plateau in Jharkhand, under Hazaribagh you have Koderma and Gaya as main sources, in Rajasthan you have Ajmer and in Andhra Pradesh you have Nellore. So this are the few specific locations where you could have Mica that could be mine.

Limestone – Rock Minerals

  • Carbonates and sedimentary rocks
  • Used in cement industry & smelting of iron ore
  • Production order – AP > MP > Raj.

Now limestone, limestone occurs as sedimentary rock deposits, so it՚s commonly seen in cement Industry, and it՚s used in smelting of iron ore, in the terms of production you have Andhra Pradesh which has highest production followed by Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Mining & Conservation

  • Mining – killer industry
  • Pulmonary diseases
  • Water contamination
  • Slurry waste
  • Collapse of roof, inundation and fires
  • Workable deposits – only 1 % of crust
  • Replenishment < Consumption
  • Finite and non-renewable resource
  • Recycling of metals
  • Energy saved is energy produced

Now why is mining and conservation important? First of all is understand few basic things about mining. Mining is also known as killer industry because people who are engaged in mining suffer from various diseases, like workers in the coal industries suffer from pneumoconiosis, you have various pulmonary disorders related to lung.

Then you have the ways that flows from mining industry affects the water, so the slurry that՚s goes, the marble slurry degrade the land areas, and there is no successful cropping in the region where you have marble mining that is taking places. This is commonly seen in the regions of Makrana and the Rajasthan region, where you have numerous marble industries then there are problem related to fires, collapse of roof, inundation etc. if we look on to the upper crust of the areas only 1 % is a workable deposits that we have and the rate of Replenishment of the minerals is much less than the rate of consumption that means this is the finite and nonrenewable resource and we must keep in mind that energy saved is energy produced. so we should utilized minerals only in the specific amount that we required again recycling of the minerals should be promoted that՚s the only way to efficiently use this resources.

Energy Resources

  • Conventional – firewood & cattle dung cake (rural -70 % energy) , coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity
  • Non-Conventional - solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas & atomic energy

Now move on to the energy resources, under energy resources as we said will classify those under conventional and Non-conventional. So Non-conventional are those which are mainly primarily renewable. So you have solar, wind, tidal and geothermal. Under conventional you have the commonly use the conventional use so make sure that conventional and non-conventional are big different for renewable and non-renewable.

Renewable means which can be replenished, non-renewable means which cannot be replenished. However conventional means which are traditionally use, so coal, petroleum, natural gas, firewood & cattle dung all these are conventional use. And non-conventional are those which are not conventional use but now we are exploiting or generating ways to exploiting this resource.

Under conventional it is important to note firewood and cattle dung cake comprises nearly 70 % of the total energy that forms in the rural areas.

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