NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 5: Minerals & Energy Resources Completes Notes Part 6 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Minerals & Energy Resources

Coal – Fossil Fuel

  • Formed by compression of plants
  • Peat – low carbon, high moisture (decaying in swamps)
  • Lignite – low grade, brown – soft and high moisture (Neyveli – T. Nadu)
  • Bituminous – Buried deep and higher temperature – in commercial use – smelting in blast furnace
  • Anthracite – High quality

Now coal, as we said due to compression of plants and animals under layers. So there are various types of coals that are seen, the lowest crate coal is known as peat it has very higher moisture contain and usually found in the swamp areas, the next to peat is lignite it is low grade, it is brown in color, in India you have reach deposits of lignite seen in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu region. Again this is soft and has high moisture. This is primarily use for industrial purpose.

The next is bituminous it is use for smelting in blast furnace so it is much deeper, it is found much deeper, at a higher temperature, and it is use commercially the best quality coal is known as anthracite. So this was the classification of coal.

Coal Deposits

  • Gondwana (> 200 mya) : Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand) , Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro, Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys
  • Tertiary (< 50 mya) : NE states - Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
  • Bulky – so heavy ind. & thermal plant near coalfields

Now when will look on to the deposits, there are two kinds of deposits the Gondwana deposits and the tertiary deposits. Gondwana deposits are more than 200 million years ago, to the time corresponding to let say the dinosaur, let say the region of Damodar Jharia, so you have all the basically the Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and the parts of Madhya Pradesh & Bihar region you have Gondwana deposits.

All the north eastern states you would have the tertiary deposits or the newer deposits. This industry coal is kind of bulky in nature so if when will look back to a weber industrial model that we discuss, Industries are located based on the row material condition, so since the row material is bulky, most of the industries that requires coal would prefer to established near the sources of coal.

So all the thermal plant industries are established near the coalfields and also many of the iron steel industries are located in the proximity in the coalfields.


  • Nodal industry for fertilizer, textile etc.
  • Called liquid gold
  • With anticlines and fault traps in tertiary rocks
  • In Anticlines - oil is trapped in crest of upfold
  • Fault trap b/w porous & non-porous rock (gas over oil)
  • 63 % production - Mumbai High, 18 % from Gujarat and 16 % from Assam
  • Ankeleshwar - Gujarat
  • Assam - oldest oil producing state (Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan)

The next is petroleum, now petroleum occurs in layers or strata, it՚s occurs in fold zone, in anticlines it occurs in the upfold region in the tertiary rocks, again it is known as liquid gold it is use for fertilizer, textile industries and transportation obviously.

Now if we talk about in terms of production highest production of petroleum in India comes from Mumbai high followed by Gujarat and then you have Assam. However Assam is considered as oldest oil producing states, when you have Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan as main producing centers.

Now how does name Digboi came into origin, so it was basically person was digain and he suddenly explore some liquid material flowing out, so the person along said come on dig boy, so dig more so ultimately name originated as digboi for region and you have in Gujarat the Ankeleshwar that՚s the again reach resource of petroleum, it՚s important to not digboi it՚s the first oil well that has been discovered in India.

However when it՚s comes to the first of sure oil well that is discovered in India is Aliabet in Gujarat.

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