NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries Completes Notes Part 2

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Manufacturing Industries

Classification of Industries

Based on

  • Raw Material: Agro-based, mineral based

  • Role: Key/Main, consumer

  • Investment: Small scale, cottage or large scale

  • Ownership: Private, public, joint or cooperatives

  • Weight: Heavy or light

Now what is various classification of Industries, we have already covered the this when we talked about class 7, so let’s do quick recap, we can classify industries based on the raw material, it could be based on agricultural produces, agro based industries, mineral based industries, then you have based on to the roles, whether it is an FMCG industries consumer goods industries for example tooth paste, tooth brush etc.

It could be main industries that is iron steel, coal which is used as a main raw material for most of the industries or the building box of industries. Then you have based on an investment you could have household industries or a cottage industries or small scale industries or large scale industries.

Based on ownership could be privately or it could be like public sector, it could be a kind of joint venture or cooperative like Amul. Then you have based on the weights there can be heavy industries like iron steels there could be light industries like you have IT based industries and the software industries.

Textile Industry

  • 14% of industrial prod.

  • 35 million people employed (next to agriculture)

  • 24% foreign exchange earning

  • 4% to GDP

  • Cotton mills (1st in 1854 - Mumbai) now 1962 mills with 80% in private – handloom, power loom

  • Previously – Maharashtra & Gujarat (cotton, mkt. & port)

  • Spinning (Maha, Guj & T. Nadu); weaving (khadi-charkha) decentralized

  • Export yarn – Japan, US, UK, France, Singapore, Sri Lanka

  • 2nd largest spindles next to China

Now we will doing some important industries case by case, so the first industries that we would talked about today is Textile industry. Now let’s start how the textile industries really works? So I have fiber with me that come from the cotton plant, that fiber goes in to spinning. After spinning it goes in to knitting finally you have dye and the garment that is ready. So the output would this would be the garment, the fiber comes from the raw fiber that you have by spinning what you would generate is the yarn, that’s the thread and by knitting what you would generated the fabric that is the cloths, and finally in the process garment so this are the 4 stages under which we try to understand the textile industries.

So as we can say it involves 14% of industrial production. Involve more than 35 million people. Contributes 24% foreign exchange earnings and 4% of GDP so these are the some of general factors about textile industries. It was 1st established in Mumbai and now nearly 1962 mill with 80% in private sector, you have both handloom and the power looms, power looms are machine runs and handloom are hand revan, so khadi and Charkha are example of handloom.

In India previously the main area was Maharashtra and Gujarat, however, Maharashtra and Gujarat centralize for fiber, Spinning slowly decentralize to Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore as main hub which known as southern India’s Manchester in Gujarat Ahmedabad is Manchester of India, in Maharashtra Bombay is known as cotton of polish of India.

Finally you have weaving that occurs by Khadi-Charkha, and all this was decentralized and could be found throw out the nation. Now what India is export mainly is yarn and its export it Japan, US, UK, France, Singapore, Sri Lanka and India is 2nd largest in terms of spindle production next to china.

Now look at the some interesting figures. If we export Yarn that is the product of spinning we earn ₹80/kg. However if we export a trouser it could be around ₹800/kg. So what is happening here is from yarn to a garment. If you are moving you are earning extensively in terms of export earnings. However still India due to lack in its infrastructure and the erratic power supply and issues of textile industry because of which it is still exporting yarn and it lacks behind in export of garments. However if India exports garment it could earn much more foreign earning or foreign revenue as compared to exporting nearly the yarn.