NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries Completes Notes Part 5

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Manufacturing Industries

Aluminum Industry

  • 2nd after iron and steel

  • Light

  • Resistant to corrosion

  • Good conductor

  • Malleable

  • Strong when mixed with other metals

  • Bauxite – RM – bulky & red

  • 8 plants – NALCO & BALCO (W. Bengal), Kerala, UP, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, T. Nadu

Now next is the aluminum industry, aluminum industry we can say the ore that is sue bauxite and this is very bulky and red in color, around 4 to 6 tons Bauxite it use to produce 1 ton of aluminum. So you have cryolite that X as electrolyte in process and speeds of reaction, so you have aluminum industry mainly use in wiring, it’s a good conductor it’s malleable and you have 8 plants that are found as NALCO & BALCO west Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.

Chemical Industry

  • % of GDP

  • 3rd largest in Asia

  • 12th in world

  • Inorganic – H2SO4, synthetic fiber, soda ash, alkalies, soap, detergent

  • Organic: Petrochemical, rubber, plastic, dyes, pharma, drugs

The next is chemical industry, India contributes 3% of the GDP for the chemical industry, 3rd largest in Asia and 12th in the world, now this chemical industry can be of two types Inorganic chemicals and Organic chemicals, organic chemicals include the Petrochemical, rubber, plastic, dyes, pharma, drugs and however Inorganic includes synthetic fiber, soda ash, alkalis, soap, detergent .

Fertilizer Industry

  • NPK

  • Potash is imported

  • 3rd largest in nitrogenous fertilizer in world

  • 10 PSU & 1 cooperative (Hazira, Gujarat)

  • Green revolution & land degradation

  • Neem coated Urea – slow dissolution

The next few industry that would be discussing before that you have another important industry that is fertilizer industry, now fertilizer industry we call at the NPK industry this is very important to understand. Nitrogen, Potassium and phosphorus, so nitrogen and phosphorus you have ample in India, however the potash is imported in India so India reserves of potash that is important.

And in terms of nitrogen fertilizer India is a 3rd largest in the world there are nearly 10PSU and 1 cooperative which is Hazira in Gujarat which works for fertilizer industry. Now what happens during the green revolution so to promote the green revolution there was lot of the NPK fertilizer that was dump in to the market as a result you had good results from green revolution, there was ample cultivation and higher production that was witness. But over the years it was realized that’s the quality of the land degraded significantly because of the use of inorganic fertilizers that were NPK.

Again there is another interesting story on fertilizer that is urea or natural fertilizer gain momentum, what happens was urea was provided as fertilizer through the public distribution system, however it was realized that this urea went into open market to get more price for the urea and did not went through public distribution system.

What did government do in order to curve this? Government launched, Neem coated Urea and urea that went into open market was used at various industries however this neem coated urea could not be used in industries and this neem coated urea was supplied to public distribution system. So ultimately since it was not used into the open market it went to the farmers and when it went to farmers it was realized that this neem coated urea has its own unique benefits. The most important was slow dissolution, so slow dissolution of urea led to the presence for a longer time into the soil and again since it was kind of natural fertilizer that was use it could overcome the problem of land degradation and that was cost due to the NPK fertilizer. So you have growing popularity of neem coated urea that is seen under fertilizer industry.