NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries Completes Notes Part 6

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Manufacturing Industries

Cement Industry

  • 1st in 1904 – Chennai

  • Expanded after 1989 – decontrol of price & distribution

  • Large & mini-plants

  • Construction

  • Meet local demands

Automobile Industry

  • Jump in 15 years

  • FDI

  • Delhi, Jamshedpur, Pune, Indore, Hyderabad, Bangalore

ICT – Software parks, BPOs

The next is cement industry, many large and small plants manufacturing cement industry it’s mainly used in construction, it started in 1904 in Chennai, however 1989 it was expanded because of the distribution and decontrol of price, then a next is you have automobile industry it gain momentum in last 15 years with the foreign direct investment coming up, Delhi, Jamshedpur, Pune, Indore, Hyderabad, Bangalore are the main center where you have the automobile industry. Finally you have the software industry, information and communication technology which led to establishment of the software parts and business processing outsourcing units.

Industrial Pollution

  • Air pollution – smoke, toxic gases (Bhopal gas tragedy)

  • Noise pollution

  • Thermal pollution – hot water in rivers, birth defects & cancers (effluents)

  • Water pollution – discharge in rivers

Now what are drawbacks of having industries, industries definitely lead to pollution so you have industrial pollution as a one of the major drawbacks, now how come this pollution is cause, this is cause and terms of water because of the discharge that goes into the river. Then you have the noise pollution level of noise there is created by industries and it affects the proximately areas, and air pollution in terms of smoke, toxic gases you have Bhopal gas tragedy, and the finally the thermal pollution is the most important of all that is due to the hot water that moves from the industries directly in the river and this affect the flora and fauna of the wild life of the river ecosystem.it can need to problems of birth defects & cancers as well because of the effluents that are been discharged into the river.

Control of Pollution

  • 1 liter discharge pollute 8 times quantity of fresh water

  • Reuse & recycle water

  • Harvest rainwater

  • Treat effluents going in water

  • Treatment types

    • Primary: mechanical – grinding, sedimentation

    • Secondary: biological

    • Tertiary: recycle waste water

  • Overdrawing of ground water – to be regulated (energy efficiency)

  • NTPC – ISO EMS 14001 – proactive approach preserve env., minimize waste, green belts, decrease pollution & monitoring

Now next how we control pollution, the first is to understand the concept of reuse and recycle so for example steel, plastic so all these could be reuse and recycle.so first way to control it reuse and recycle, then harvesting the rainwater properly because there has lot of water that is required in the industrial processing, all the effluents that are directly being discharge in river what are must be treat, so that all the harmful chemicals are removed.

Recently we have discovered fungus eating bacteria, fungi that could eat plastics so you have to develop sub kind of innovations in field of science and technology which could help curb the problem of pollution. so if you have fungus like eat on the plastics the problem of plastics could decrease.

Then what are the various types of treatment, there are three basic types of treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment and tertiary treatment. The primary treatment is poorly mechanical, you have grinding, sedimentation and all the impurity would settled down in the water and you can use the top water that’s kind of primary treatment.

Under the secondary treatment you can put in biological units so let’s say putting the fungus eat to the plastics you are putting other kinds of bacterial in to the water system and finally you have the tertiary system where you have recycle the waste water and all the waste from the water is removed.

Again most of the time you have ground water that has been over use, so there should be check and over use of the ground water so that’s the gray zones do not developed and water table does not go deep below. There are various other ways under which you can control pollution, which are given by the NTPC that is an establishment of green belts, decreasing pollution & monitoring a kind of pro-active approach to help understand that, it’s important to understand that 1 liter of the discharge that goes in to a water pollutes near 8 times quantity of fresh water that present in the system. So it’s very important to check the amount of pollution that going into the water body in the ecosystem.