NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7: Life Lines of National Economy Completes Notes Part 2

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Life Lines of National Economy

Types of Roads

  • Golden Quadrilateral / East – West (Silchar to Porbander) & North – South (Srinagar to Kanyakumari)

  • National Highways – Maintained by CPWD (Sher Shah Suri – Delhi Amritsar is NH1; NH 8 – Delhi-Mumbai; NH-7 – Varanasi Kanyakumari)

  • State Highways – by PWD

  • District Highways – by Zila Parishad

  • Other/ Rural Roads – PM Gramin Sadak Yojana

  • Border Roads – North, NE & NW India

  • Metalled – All weather (concrete, bitumen & coal)

  • Unmetalled – half of the total

Now what are the common types of roads I can say there are metal roads or un-metal roads, metal roads are all weather roads or Pakka roads they are made up of concrete, bitumen and coal. However the unmetal roads account for half of the total roadways in India and they are commonly found in the village and the periphery areas now when we classify roads we classify roadways under 6 basic heads.

So the first is the national highways which is maintained by the central public works department, now these connects the major centers across India and this comes under central government so it’s maintained by CPWD the first road that was started is from Sher Shah Suri road from Delhi to Amritsar which is NH1, the first road that was started, then you have NH8 that is Delhi to Mumbai highway, and NH7 that is Varanasi to Kanyakumari. Now this is considered as one of the longest highways. Now all this highways are maintained by the CPWD.

Then you have state highways which are maintained by the state which join the state capital or the major states city, so you have the state highway is maintained by PWD the public works department of the state next to that you have the district highways let’s say you have the state highway in the state of Rajasthan that connects with Ajmer, Jaipur, Byawar and so on, and then you would have district highways which would have within our district.

Let’s say within the district of Udaipur you would have connections to Dungarpur and nearby areas so you have the district highways, the next is the rural roads these roads are built under the Pradhan Mantri Gramin Sadak Yojana, and finally you have the border roads these are the roads which are built at the border area so the area in contact with the border area with the Pakistan with the Northeast, the area touching the China border so you have north, Northwest and Northeast regions which have the border road and on this border road you mainly have the border security force that is employed.

Now what is major road networks that has been started off recent, so there are two basic road network that India plans to develop and is working on is the golden Quadrilateral and the East-West, North-South corridor, when we say Golden Quadrilateral it simply means connecting the 4 metropolitan’s, so you have Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

So this 4 metropolitans connected by road is known as Golden Quadrilateral and within this 4 metropolitans you have a high metro train route that has been devised and this is known as Diamond Quadrilateral so this Diamond Quadrilateral falls on the railways and Golden Quadrilateral falls under roadways both of them are some of the recent schemes that have been released.

Now east to west corridor talk about connecting Silchar in Assam to Porbandar in Gujarat, North- south corridor talk about connecting Srinagar in Kashmir to Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. So these are the basic road network that we have.