NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7: Life Lines of National Economy Completes Notes Part 3 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Life Lines of National Economy

Railways

  • Integrating since last 150 years
  • It is largest PSU in India
  • 1st train – 1853 – Mumbai to Thane
  • Broad, Meter & narrow gauge
  • Plains, high density, agricultural area
  • Difficult – in Mountains, deserts & landslide areas
  • Diamond Quadrilateral (high speed rail network)

The next is railways as we said Diamond Quadrilateral which is the high speed rail network between the 4 metropolitan՚s, now railways is the largest PSU in India, now for the first time in 2017 rail budget and the union budget have been merged it has been integrating nation for the last 150 years. Railways originated in India with the kind of British it went in India. The first train was run from Bombay to thane in 1853.

The railways are classified under 3 heads you have Broad gauge, Meter gauge & narrow gauge, narrow gauge nowadays is found only in the hilly tracks which is a kind of UNESCO heritage site for most of the region՚s most of the network nowadays is broadways the railway connectivity has moved from coal to diesel and finally and most of the lines are now electrified, so there has been a transition in the kind of power supply that has been used in railways, again railways are based for plain areas high-density areas and agricultural areas it՚s difficult to maintain railways in mountainous tracks, dredger tracks and the areas which are prone to landslides.

Pipelines

  • Gas/oil/solid
  • Refineries – Barauni, Mathura, Panipat
  • Initial cost is high, running cost is low
  • Oil (Upper Assam to Kanpur) via Guwahati, Barauni & Allahabad
  • From Salaya (Guj.) to Jalandhar (Punjab) via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi, Sonipat
  • From Hazira (Guj.) to Jagdishpur (UP) via Vijaipur (MP)

The next is pipeline, pipelines can transport either liquid, solid or gas so under liquid you have oil that is commonly transported. so you have refineries and Barauni, Mathura and Panipat. Which transport the oil to the remaining part of the nation. Pipelines have a high initial cost of establishment but overall running cost is low, so once established it becomes much more viable source of energy.

Now where does the oil is transported, so oil is transported from upper Assam to Kanpur and that occurs via Guwahati, Barauni & Allahabad and then you have a second pipeline from Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi, Sonipat again you have HPJ pipelines that runs from Hazira Gujarat to Jagdishpur Uttar Pradesh via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. so these are some of the common Gas and Oil pipelines that we have in India.

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