NCERT Class 10 Geography Chapter 7: Life Lines of National Economy Completes Notes Part 4 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Life Lines of National Economy


  • Cheapest
  • Fuel efficient and environment friendly
  • 95 % trade in volume & 68 % in value by sea
  • Coastline – 7516 km (handle 95 % foreign trade)
  • Kandla (after 1947, to relieve Mumbai) as Karachi went to Pak.
  • Mumbai – Biggest, natural and sheltered harbor
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Port to decongest Mumbai
  • Marmagao (export iron) from Goa
  • New Mangalore (Karnataka) – export iron from Kudremukh
  • Kochi – entrance of lagoon with natural harbor

The next is waterways, among all waterways is the cheapest sources of energy it is fuel efficient and environmental friendly 95 % of the trade in terms of volume occurs by waterways off with 68 % in terms of value occurs by waterways, India has a very huge coastline so it can handle nearly 95 % of the foreign trade, now when it comes to waterways sagar mala project is one of the major initiative that has come into being recently so of recent sagar mala project has been important and you can check out the other video which we have taken, where we have discussed sagar mala project and detail.

Some of the major ports in India the first is Kandla, now this Kandla was established to relieve the load that came onto the Bombay port after the partition of India as a result you had Karachi which was a major port which went to Pakistan and there was huge load on Mumbai port to relieve that port Kandla port was established. Mumbai as we know is the biggest natural and sheltered harbor.

The next is again to decongest the load of Mumbai you had another port that was established which was Jawaharlal Nehru Port which was close to the Mumbai port the next is Marmagao that was established in Goa and it predominantly exports iron from Goa, the new Mangalore in Karnataka which again exports iron from Kudremukh mines. You have Kochi which is in Kerala and it is entrance of lagoon and it is a natural harbour.

Location Shows Some of the Major Ports in India

These are the location of some of the major ports in India so these locations are important.

  • Tuticorin – Natural harbor, Tamil Nadu
  • Chennai – oldest artificial harbor (next to Mumbai in cargo)
  • Vishakhapatnam – deepest landlocked (iron export)
  • Paradip – Odisha (iron export)
  • Kolkata – inland riverine port – tidal port (Haldia to decongest Kolkata)
  • National Waterways
  • Sagar Mala Project
  • NW -1: On Ganga b/w Allahabad & Haldia
  • NW -2: Brahmaputra b/w Sadiya and Dhubri
  • NW-3: West Coast Canal in Kerala

Now back you have Tuticorin which is again natural harbor in Tamil Nadu. Chennai is one of the oldest artificial harbor, so that is again important, Chennai is an artificial Harbor and it comes next to Mumbai, Vishakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked port you have iron as a predominant export from Vishakhapatnam, Paradip was built in Odisha and it again export iron so Paradip, Marmagao and New Mangalore are some of the major iron export reports.

You have Kolkata port that was an inland riverine port, it also known as a tidal port because of you have lots of tidal region that occurs there to decongest the load on Kolkata port, you had another port that was built in its periphery and that is known as the Haldia port.

Now most of the national routes the national Highways connect the port areas because from the ports as we say you need to have a feeder transport to the railways or the container shipments, again for the inland navigation you have the various national waterways that are commonly heard of , now some of the common waterways runs through Ganga and Brahmaputra so Ganga and Brahmaputra have immense potential to be develop as a source of inland water transportation from one city to another being a much cheaper source as compare to other sources.

So you have national water 1 which runs on Ganga between Allahabad & Haldia, you have national waterways 2 which runs Brahmaputra between Sadiya and Dhubri and again you have national waterways 3 which runs West Coast Canal in Kerala so these three are some of the major waterways that you have.

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