NCERT Class 4 Geography: The Northern Mountains of India Complete Notes

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Key Notes –

1. The mountain Himalaya – the highest mountains ranges extends from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh covering a distance of about 2500 km.

Comparing peaks

Comparing Peaks

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2. The Himalayas mean β€˜the abode of snow’.

3. Mt Everest which is located in Nepal is the highest mountain peak in the world with a height of 8848 metres.

4. Tenzing Norgay of India and Edmund Hillary of New Zealand were the first who succeeded in reaching the summit of Mt Everest in 1953.

Hillary and Norgay

Hillary and Norgay

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Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay

5. Bachendri Pal was the first Indian woman to reach Mt Everest on 23rd May, 1984.

6. The Himalayas can be divided into three parallel ranges –

  • Himadri or Greater Himalaya

  • Himachal Himalaya or Lesser Himalaya and

  • Shiwaliks or Outer Himalayas

Highest peaks

Highest Peaks

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7. Brahmaputra, Indus and Satluj are some other major rivers that originate from the Greater Himalayas.

8. The Himachal ranges have beautiful valleys and hill stations, such as, Shimla, Darjeeling, Nanital, Dalhousie, Dharamsala, Manali, and Mussorie.

9. There are many passes through which people move from one place to another. A pass is a narrow passage through the mountains. Shipki La and Bara Lacha La in Himachal Pradesh, Nathu La in Sikkim, and Bomdi La in Arunachal Pradesh are some such passes.

10. There are valleys between the middle and lower Himalayas. These valleys are called as Doons. Derha Dun is an example of a Doon.

11. At the foothill of Shiwalik range lies the Terai region. Terai region is marshy and covered with thick forests. People here grow crops like wheat and sugarcane.

12. Terrace farming and cattle rearing are the main occupations of the people in these hilly areas.

13. The Northern Mountain is important to use, because –

  • The Himalayas act like a natural wall on the northern border of the country

  • The Himalayas also protect us from the cold winds blowing from the north.

  • The Himalayas check the rain bearing monsoon wind and cause rainfall in various parts of our country.

  • Many dams have been built in the Himalayan Rivers which provide electricity and irrigate agricultural lands.

  • The thick forests of the Himalayas are the home of wild animals.

  • The forests provide us with wood for industries and herbs with medicinal value