NCERT Class 4 Geography: The Northern Plains of India Complete Notes

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Key Notes –

1. The Northern Plains are formed by three Himalayan rivers – Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra

Rivers of nothern plains

Rivers of Nothern Plains

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2. The great Northern Plains lie to the south of the Himalayas and stretch from Punjab in the west to Assam in the east.

3. The plains cover almost the whole of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Delhi, parts of Bihar and Assam.

Rivers in North India

Rivers in North India

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4. The Plains are made of fine silt deposited by the rivers which is called alluvium. The deposit of alluvium makes these plains very fertile.

5. The three important rivers basins in India are

  • The Satluj River Basin

  • The Ganga River Basin and

  • The Brahmaputra River Basin

6. Punjab and Haryana lie in the Satluj basin. Most of India’s Wheat comes from the Satluj basin. Hence this area is called the ‘Wheat Basket of India’.

7. The Bhakra Dam built on the Satluj River is the highest dam in India.

8. The Ganga River originates as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glacier. Many tributaries join the main river from its right and left bank.

Tributeries

Tributaries of Ganga joining from the North/Left

Tributaries of Ganga joining from the South/Right

  • Gomati

  • Ghagra

  • Gandak

  • Kosi

  • Chambal

  • Sind

  • Betwa

  • Son ∙ Yamuna

9. A delta is low lying flat land near the sea where the river deposits its sediment.

10. The Ganga and Brahmaputra form the world’s largest Delta before draining into Bay of Bengal This delta is known as Sunderban delta.

11. The river Brahmaputra originates in Tibet, where it is called Tsangpo.

12. The Northern Plains region is one of the most fertile regions of our country.

13. This region is one of the most thickly populated regions in the world. More than 40% of India’s population lives in this area.

14. This region supplies food grains to many of the central and southern states. That’s why Northern Plain is called the ‘Food bowl of India’.

15. The farmers of Delhi and Uttar Pradesh grow mainly wheat and sugarcane. Other crops grown here are rice, jowar, Bajra, Barley, gram, oilseed, etc. The major crops grown in Bihar and West Bengal are rice and jute.

16. Many industries like iron and steel, leather, cement, paper, jute, hosiery, etc. have been set up in this region.

17. Some of the important industrial cities in this region are Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, Ludhiana, Ambala, Chandigarh, Patna, Kolkata, etc.

18. The industries around the river Ganga are polluting the environment.