NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 2: Globe-Latitudes & Longitudes Complete Notes Part 1

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Globe - Latitudes & Longitudes


  • Axis

  • North Pole

  • South Pole

Let’s takes the ball is example of Globe. And you have point here. The line which runs throw this point would be axis for the globe. In the globe the top most region would be North Pole and South most region would be South Pole. I can say Globe represents real earth on a small scale. So, when we are trying to understand this itself we are drawing map projection etc.

Now understanding the concept of latitude and longitude. degree means to go around and you have 24 hours at a calculator. So simplifying this I can say degree would be equal to 1 hour and you have would be equal to 4 minutes.


Now when will come on the basic concept of degree, minutes and second.

We have,

1 degree 60 minutes

1 minutes 60 seconds

So, basic criteria will use as we move a cross in this lecture.

Now if I try to understand help of this ball. I can say line which are drawn horizontally would be a parallel. So, we call the parallel or latitudes. So I can say this zone which closest to degree parallel or the parallel runs to the center of the earth and this zones runs north and south of degrees. So, you have equator and tropical zone.

Image shows Latitudes

Image Shows Latitudes

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Now let’s try to understand here in this diagram so you have the degree you have the Equator and North and south of the Equator you have two major lines that are important both is a north hemisphere and south hemisphere. So you have the equator north of it till degree as Tropic of Cancer. And degree south of it you have Tropic of Capricorn. Then you have degrees, you have Antarctic Circle in south and north you have Arctic Circle.

Now the region between Tropic of cancer and Tropic of Capricorn that degree north and south equator would be known as tropical Zone. The region between Tropic of cancer and Arctic Circle in north and tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic Circle in south would be known as a Temperate Zone. Here temperature would be moderate and finally Arctic and Antarctica circle to poles that is and degree north and south would be known as a frigid zone. This are cold zones.

Now this is important to understand when will talk about terms of the heat and atmospheres circulation. Which will already discussed and covered in climatology.

So, if you try to divide earth in various zone. You have three Basic zones that is tropical zone, Temperate zone and fridge zone. That lines run parallel to the earth horizontally are known as a latitude or parallel this runs east to west. This are the basic characteristic that we try to understand about latitude. Also, when you have latitude here, all the latitude north side would be known as north latitude and all the latitude south side would be known as a south latitude. Again southmost region is South Pole and northmost region would be North Pole.