NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 4: Maps Complete Notes Part 2

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Component of Maps

Now most important secession of today class will focus on component of maps. Whenever we talk of the components, we have three basic components we will try to explain. We try to depend on map every day. Three types below it.

Component of Maps

Component of Maps

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  1. Symbol: Symbol is commonly use convention. For example it there is a cross road I use a symbol which is treat a cross road. If you have say river going on I would have demarcation which would explain river, so this symbols are used not only in one city or one state or one country but they are accepted internationally. When we have this symbol which are accepted internationally, we call those as convention symbols. So convention symbol are accepted internationally.

  2. Direction: Direction is whenever I draw map I must know which direction point on to. For example, I can draw another map of Africa which is this now upside down. If I am drawing this and marking this side north this map is also correct. Map is correct only if you have direction sense that is provided in a map. Unless and until you have direction sense the map is incomplete. So direction is very important and to understand direction most important is a cardinal points. When we takes about the basic cardinal points you have north, south, east and west decided that you have four other subsidiary cardinal point this are north-east, north-west, south-west and south-west.

Image for 8 cardinal points

Image for 8 Cardinal Points

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So there are the 8 major cardinal points.

N= North

S = South

W= West

E= East

NE = North East

SE = South East

NW = North West

SW = South West

  1. Distance: It very important to understand the distance in terms of scale because when I talk about scale. It is the ratio of the actually distance that exist on the ground and the distance that you are drawing on the map. So if I move forward you have the concept of scale.

Scale: Bar & Lexical

  • Large Scale Map: Small Area, More Information & Topographic Maps

  • Small Scale Map: Large area, less information and thematic maps

Image for Scale,Bar and Lexical

Image for Scale,Bar and Lexical

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It is the ratio of the actual distance that exists on the ground and the distance that you are drawing on the map. So, if I move forward you have concept of scale. This scale talk about the distance that exists. So for example I say previously if I have two covered distance of a 3km. and I have the data given 1cm represents 1 km to draw distance of 3km I will need a line of 3 cm.

The first way I am say, 1cm equal to 3 km. so I can write as 1cm to 3 km and this would be known as written statement. I also say lexical statement or it is a stated statement.

The next kind of a scale that we must understand as kind of bar scale. So bar scale usually depicts the distance. That means draw a scale which is a dash and represent 0,1,2,3 so this is 1cm so I can say 1=1km what are I am try to here is trying to explain what is there ground and what is the map by means of usually bar and that bar you can see bottom of most of the maps.

So for example here you have bar denotes distance of 1 inch, so if I have scale that explains 1 Inch equal to 557 miles. So if I say from here to here 10 inch for USA that means the total distance from one part of USA to the other part of USA would be 5570 miles and is a kind of very simple representation that I try to do by means of bar scale.

Next is ratio scale. We also call it RF that is representative Frication. That means if I say 1cm equal to 1 km. How can I explain it? I can say …


1km=1000m (1m =100cm)

So, =1,00,000cm.

So, I can say ratio and RF would be 1:100000 and what I am try to explain is 1cm on map equal to 1,00,000cm on the ground.

To convert ratio scale to stated scale and stated scale to ration scale, all you need do is simple multiplication or division. So if I want to convert from stated scale to ratio scale. I need to simply multiply.

However if I want to convert from the ratio scale back to the stated scale. I need to divide.

Now again we are taking about scale and mapping there can be two kinds of scale small scale maps and large scale map small scale maps and large scale map have a basic different so let’s do the by example and that would be the best way to explain. This

Table shows different between Small Scale map and Large Scale map

Small Scale Maps

Large Scale Maps

I say for small scale 5cm=500 kilometers on ground.

I say 5cm on map equal to 500 meters on ground.

If it is small scale map I draw thematic map, because my 5cm= 500 kilometers, basically cover large area.

5cm=500 meter set draw a region of city or say from my school to my house the distance between the school and house area was small but given more information. Covers smaller areas with detailed information.

If you have say world map that here on a world map I can just marked the city of Delhi as dot.

If it is large scale map I can draw the entire city of Delhi. I can draw it’s urban pocket, slum pocket etc.

The small map explain very large area

Provide detailed information for same region and they are mainly topographic map.