NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 6: Major Landforms of the Earth Complete Notes Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Major Landforms of the Earth

Feature of Mountains, Plateaus and Plains

Types of Mountain


Fold Mountains:

Now will start with Mountain, first the most complicated ones among the three. So you have Mountains which could be classified in to two types. I can say the mountains could be either you have kind of formation that takes places due to folding as in the case of Himalayas. So you have Fold Mountains, you have block mountains and also kind of less common as known are the volcanic mountain. Now Fold Mountains as we understand can be again of two types Young fold Mountains and old fold Mountains.

So we will first start with classification of Mountains: old fold Mountains and Young fold mountains. Young Mountains are Himalayas and you have the Alps. So you have mountain range that are being folded by the endogenic forces. When I say endogenic those means Internal and if I say exogenic those means External. So motion take place either through Internal force or external force. When we talk about internal forces we mainly discuss internal forces as endogenic forces and fold mountains are due to collision that lead to formation of either Young fold mountains or old fold mountains. Young fold mountains - classic examples are Himalayas, Alps, Andes (South America) , Rockies (North America) .

For old fold mountains, most common example that you might have heard of is Aravallis in Rajasthan, Appalachians and Urals. Now next term is Block Mountains.

Block Mountains:

Block Mountains as I previously talked about made either of kind of block that moves up and down so it՚s a kind of faulting that occurs and you have horst and garben formation that occurs. The common example is Rhine valley & Block Mountains. Then comes Volcanic Mountain.

Volcanic Mountains:

Volcanic mountains are Fujiyama in Japan and Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa. Volcanic mountains are also commonly seen along the Pacific ring of fire. So you have Pacific ring of fire that we already talk about in previous session and along the Pacific ring of fire you would have number of Volcanic Mountains that would be seen. So this was basic classification for Mountains. Now moving on to Plateaus.


We understand that in India you have most familiar plateaus that is the Deccan Plateau. Now this Plateau are mainly formed by lava and when I say they are formed by lava, I can say they are volcanic in origin and extension of Deccan Plateaus is Chotanagpur Plateaus in India. Now this Chotanagpur Plateaus is a kind of reserve for number of minerals like iron, coal etc. Deccan Plateaus which is again lava based is home to number of minerals. So these are some of the example sited from India. Now if we talk about worldwide distribution, you have Tibet plateau that place a major role in the monsoonal activities. East plateaus region of Africa comprises of Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya. They you have the Colombia plateaus seen in United States.

Now one of the important understanding about plateaus in India is these are center of tourist activities for example the Chotanagpur plateaus you have Hundru falls located on Subarnarekha River. And then you have again south of Deccan Plateau, Jog falls in Karnataka on Sharavathi River. So this are some major water falls that are a part of the plateau system. Again the mountains are known for trekking activities now next come the plains.


Plains are most fertile region. So they have mainly predominate activity as primary sector. That is agriculture and industry align to agriculture so you have the agro-based Industries that exist here. So in India it՚s predominately Ganga, Brahmaputra River basin that is home to maximum number of kindly highly dense population of India, then you have Yangtze River in China. So this are some of the Major plain areas which are kind of highly fertile in nature and are major source of kind of economic activities for the common masses.

So this was kind of simple topic when be talked about basic Classification if you want to refer the classification of mountains and mountains of system in details we are already covered that in a separate lecture.

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