NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 7: Our Country – India Complete Notes Part 2

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Our Country – India

Political Geography of India

Highlights of the political map of India:

  • 29 States

  • 7 UT’s

  • Rajasthan – Largest (Area)

  • Goa – Smallest (Area)

Political Geography of India

Political Geography of India

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As of now you have 29 states that exist in India. The recent state that is Telangana now was demarcated in 2014. Tamil Nadu is now divided into Telangana and Tamil Nadu. In the year 2000, you had three major states that broke up that was Chhatishgath from Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand from Bihar and finally Uttara Khand from Uttar Pradesh.

You had 7 UT’s that exist in India.

Rajasthan be area is the largest states and Goa by area is the smallest states. So this was the basic idea for India.

Physical Divisions

Moving to the major physical divisions of India:

  • Himalayas (Abode of Snow) – Greater/Himadri, Middle/Himachal, Shiwaliks

  • Northern Plains – Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra & tributaries

  • Great Indian Desert - Thar

  • Peninsular Plateau - Triangular, rich in coal and iron ore

  • Coastal Plains

  • Island Groups

Now let’s talk about Himalayas. Himalayas from word itself. It means Him+alay. So in Hindi “him” means “Snow” and “alay” means “home”. So Himalayas is “home to snow” as it is expressed by the name. Now Himalayas can be divided into three greater Himalayas, middle Himalayas, and outer Himalayas. The outer Himalayas are known as “Shivaliks”, the middle Himalayas are known as “Himachal” and greater Himalayas are known as “Himadri”.

Then you have northern plains. Northern plains includes three major rivers that is Indus, the Ganga and Brahmaputra and the tributaries of this three major rivers. This is considered as one of the most fertile deltas of India.

Next is the peninsular region. As you can see shape here triangular in nature in shape it is volcanic in nature. This region has been rich in minerals mainly coal and iron. Now this is surrounded by Western Ghats on west and Eastern Ghats on east. Now Western Ghats or Sahadyris are continuous while Eastern Ghats are Broken and you have number of gaps that exist in eastern ghats.

On the north west of peninsular region of you have the Aravallis that exists which are oldest remaining mountains, they degrade in day by day and decrease in height in simple terms.

The next is coastal plains. You have western coastal plains. Western coastal plains are narrow. However eastern coastal plains are broad. Now western coastal plains you have mainly the two rivers which flow here the two major rivers are Narmada and Tapi and they directly move in to the Ocean. As a result they have various kind of estuaries that are from. However towards the east you have Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri which flow & fall into Bay of Bengal forming deltas. So all the rivers in eastern side of India form delta as they merge into Bay of Bengal however towards the west the major as estuaries that drain in ocean directly without delta formations.

So this was the coastal plains and last you have the two island group that is Lakshadweep Islands group and Andaman Nicobar Islands group. Lakshadweep Islands group is mainly coral island and is most uninhabited.

Now this coral are basically made of small tiny marine animals which are known as polyps and this polyps which produce different color and form ultimately the coral islands and the coral reef.

Andaman group and Nicobar group of island are two separate group which is separated and then you have the whole region surrounded by the Andaman Sea. This Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as Lakshadweep are home to number of tribal population

In 2004, Andaman and Nicobar witnessed severe Tsunami. Tsunami is a kind of earthquake that occurs underwater. Tsunami leads to loss of land as well as human resources.