NCERT Class 6 Geography Chapter 8: Climate, Vegetation & Wildlife Complete Notes Part 2

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Climate, Vegetation & Wildlife

Natural Vegetation

  • Tropical Evergreen/Rainforest – Heavy rain, dense, no sunlight on ground, shed leaves in different season – A&N Is., NE States, West of Western Ghats: Mahogany, Ebony & Rosewood

  • Tropical deciduous – Monsoon, Less dense, shed leaves at one time - MP, Bihar, UP, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Maharashtra: Sal, Teak, Peepal

  • Thorny Shrubs – Dry, Spines - Raj, Punjab, Haryana: Cactus, Khair, Babool, Keekar

  • Mountain Vegetation – 1500 to 2500 mt, Conical, coniferous: Chir, Pine, Deodar

  • Mangroves – Saline, Sunderbans - Sundari Trees (pneumatophores)

India we have 5 major categories of vegetation: tropical Evergreen, Tropical deciduous, Thorny shrubs, Mountain Vegetation and Mangroves. Let’s understand one by one.

Tropical evergreen or rainforest: now as a name suggest rain forest usually been in the area close to the equatorial belt and we call it evergreen because if you visualize this forest they appear green despite of the fact visit then in any season. That means this region have the different species of the trees and of that shed leaves in different seasons. So let’s say you have piece A, B, C and D. now A will shed leaves in winter and that time B, C and D would be green. B would shed the leaves for example in summer at that time A, C and D would be green, so any given season you would have greenery. So that is what is why will call this Evergreen. This region have heavy Rainfall and dense forest and forest is so dense that sunlight is unable to reach to the ground. Some of the common example in India are Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Northern East States and west part of Western Ghats. Common trees are Mahogany, Ebony & Rosewood.

Tropical deciduous: Tropical deciduous is are monsoon based forest. They are less dense compared to Evergreen forest and all of the trees and tropical deciduous shed they leaves at a same time. In the autumn you would see no trees with leaves. The common places are MP, Bihar, UP, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and Maharashtra. The common trees that are seen under deciduous are sal, Teak and Peepal.

Thorny Shrubs: Thorny shrubs vegetation is found in some parts of Rajasthan. The arid parts of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, mostly I would say region west of Aravalli range so they are dry. Modification occurs from of stem it modify to leaves and leaves modify to spines so as to reduces the consumption of water, common example are cactus, Khair, Babool, Keekar.

Mountains: Then you have mountains as vegetation that occurs in higher altitude at around 1500 to 2500 mt usually conical and coniferous in nature. Chir, pine and deodar are the common examples.

Mangroves: Mangroves are found in saline water, commonly in Sunderbans. Common vegetation is sundri trees. Now this sundri trees are known for their pneumatophore roots. That means since the water is salty and marshy the roots pop outside from the ground and they for they are known as aerial roots or pneumatophores.

Forest

  • Provide Oxygen

  • Act as carbon sink

  • Prevent soil erosion – hold soil

  • Timber for furniture

  • Food produce, gum, lac, honey

  • Shelter & Habitat

  • Van Mahotsav

The Importance of Trees

The Importance of Trees

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Now why are forest important? Forest provide oxygen to us. They act as carbon sink because the they are largest absorb of the carbons. All the carbons dioxide is absorbed by the plants. Plantation is important activities to reduce the pollution. Plants also bind the soil and prevent soil erosion. They provide timber for furniture. Provide shelter and habitat numerous wildlife. To protect and conserve forest India has been organizing Van Mahotsav.

Wildlife

  • National Animal: Tiger

  • National Bird: Peacock

  • Gir Forest: Asiatic Lions

  • Elephants & One-horned Rhino: Assam

  • Camel & Wild Ass: Desert & Rann of Kutch

  • Wild Goats & Snow Leopards: Himalayas

  • 1st week of Oct: Wildlife Week

  • Project Tiger, Project Crocodile

  • Migratory Birds: Pelicans, Siberian Cranes, Stork, Flamingo, Curlew, Pintail Duck

Now coming on to wildlife let’s talk about the national animal, national bird. National animal is Tiger and national bird if India is peacock. Now India is home to numerous wildlife which is endemic to specific region for example Gir forest is a known for Asiatic Lions then you have Assam which is known for one- horned Rhino and Elephants. You have camels found which found and desert and Rann of Kutch. You have wild Goats and snow leopards which are found in Himalayas. Some of them are on the verge of extension or I would say rather the in danger. As a result the 1st week of October is a celebrated as wildlife week.

We talk about awareness programs, student programs and college student talk about how wildlife conservation is important and what would be done to conserve wildlife. Project of tiger and project of Crocodile are two such program. India is also home to numerous migratory birds. Migratory birds means those birds are coming from other nations, for example Siberian Cranes. Siberian Cranes come in India in month of December from Siberia and the basic reason attributed is the Siberia during the winter month become extremely cold as a result this Siberian Cranes have to migrate to a warmer place to find shelter. And those birds which migrate from one place to another place or which move one place to another place basic on seasoned variation are known as migratory birds. Some common example are Pelicans, Siberian Cranes, Stork, Flamingo, Curlew and Pintail Duck.