NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 1: Environment Completes Notes Part 2

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Natural Environment

Natural Environment

Natural Environment

Now taking about natural components first natural components as I said can be further classified into Biotic and Abiotic. Biotic means a region where life exists. Abiotic means region where there is no life. I could say a simple terms that living is biotic. So when we talk about nonliving things it includes Air, Water and land and is abiotic. So you have lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere which are abiotic and when they interact with biotic, there is the zones of life that comes in. That is basic aim to understand natural environment. Now let’s talk about human environment.

Human Environment

  • Grow Crops

  • Domesticate Animals

  • Settled Life

  • Wheel Invented

  • Barter System: Exchange of goods without money

  • Trade Started

  • Industrial Revolution

  • Transportation

  • Information Revolution

When we talk about human environment it’s a kind of crops we grow, animals we domesticate, over the period of life we have kind of settled life with housing. If we talk about the historical background, we invented fire, we invented wheel, latter on the barter system (exchange of commodity), then came the trade, industrial revolution. This industrial revolution marked in as result of revolution for those was need for transportation to work around and there was transport expansion and expansion in its network. Finally the era today we can say it kind of information revolution, where we focus more on information and related parameters.


  • Study of relationships and interactions of living organisms with other living organisms and its surrounding environment

  • 3 main things:

  • Living organisms

  • Relations with other organisms

  • Relations with surrounding environment

Now say I said need to clearly the difference between environment, ecology and ecosystem. When we talk about ecology I can say it’s simple study of relationship and interactions of living organisms. So I can say talk about three basic things first is living organisms, now interactions of this living organisms with another living and organisms interaction with its surrounding or it environment. So these are the three basic things that we covered when we talk about ecology.


  • Ecosystem = Ecology + Environment

  • Functional Units

  • Environment (biotic & abiotic) & Ecology (how living organisms interact)

Ecosystem is summation of ecology and environment. That means when ecology and environment come in to play together you have ecosystem that is established and this ecosystem are functionally units. Now in simple terms as I said environment include biotic and abiotic components; that is living and nonliving components on the other hand ecology include how living organisms interact. So when I club this together I can simply say ecosystem is a functional units.

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