NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 6: Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Completes Notes Part 1

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Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

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When we start with vegetation and wildlife we can classify the vegetation into three brad components that is the Forest, Grasslands and Shrubs. now all this three depends on certain parameters.

Factors Affecting Vegetation

  • Varies with height

  • Temperature

  • Moisture

  • Slope

  • Soil Thickness

Now I can say the vegetation of arid area if I visit a desert area would be very different from a region if I visit grassland or if I visit mountain top so all the way you have different vegetation that is seen. If I am going up on the mountain as soon as I move up there are changes in the vegetation patterns that could be seen and all those are the various factors that affects the type of vegetation. If I move up on the mountain you would have changes in the type of trees that I see, towards the top I would have coniferous forest that is conical tree that would be seen and so on.

So you have vegetation that varies with height it also various with temperature it varies with Moisture the slop conditions and on the amount of soil or the thickness of soil that is present there, based on these five factor you have the three categories of vegetation.

Categories of Vegetation

  • Forests: Region of plenty of rain & temperature

  • Grasslands: Moderate rain

  • Shrubs: Dry regions

The forest area present where you have ample of rainfall and good temperature that you can see, grassland occurs in the region of moderate rainfall, finally you have shrubs that would occurs yet dry regions.

Tropical Evergreen Forest

  • Also called Tropical rainforests

  • From equator to tropics

  • Hot & Humid

  • Rain throughout the year

  • Sunlight don’t penetrate down

  • Rosewood, Ebony, Mahogany

Start with forest among the forest the first type of forests that will understand is the tropical evergreen forest. Now understanding the terminology is important here. So once you are clear with the terminology you want ever faced problems related to understanding the criteria or the classification.

Now when I say you have equator that passes here. You have let’s say the tropic of cancer and the tropic of Capricorn that is passing. Now the region between the equator and the tropics that is degree north and south approximately would be the tropical area. So whatever would be covered here all three line cross Africa so that the best way to understand the various tropics so all the three lines that’s tropics of cancer, tropic of Capricorn and equator would cross the continent of Africa. All the region that is degrees north and south of equator would be the tropical region so whenever I talk about tropical vegetation on tropical forest or tropical climate and basically focusing on this region.

We will differentiate what is evergreen forest and what is deciduous. When we talk about Evergreen forest that means that forest has different type of trees.

Throughout the year there are some plants that are presents on which would be at least some plants that some trees that would have leaves on them throughout the year. Throughout the year if we see it from a distance we will have a feeling that this tree and this forest are green and therefore we call them as evergreen forest.

Now a similar terminology which is used instead of evergreen is deciduae’s means all the trees of that forest shed their leaves in one season. All the tree shed lives mostly say in summer that tells to avoid the dry weather and avoid the process of a not avoid I would say minimize the process of transpiration so to reduce transpiration all of these trees shed their leaves together in summer months so in the summers or autumn months of summer months if you see those region you would those are barren areas without any leaves on them. So that is what is deciduous.

Now similar to tropical that we have explained a similar kind of climatic condition is temperate but temperate occurs north and south of tropical areas, you would have the temperate and that temperate usually lies from degree and degree and again degree and degree. So that is where you would have the temperate vegetation or the temperate belt so this is the basic terminology.

Now let’s move on to the first that is tropical and evergreen so tropical means occurring in this region and evergreen means they would have trees throughout they would have leaves throughout the year they are also known as rain forest they are commonly seen in the hot and humid belt and this hot and humid belt usually occurs near the tropical area where you have rain that occurs throughout the year.

Again since you have this as evergreen vegetation the vegetation is so dense that the sunlight you have trees that are so dense that the sunlight cannot penetrate down as a result you do not see sunlight that reaches the lower strata of the vegetation. The common tree that are seen here are Rosewood, Ebony and mahogany. Now next is Tropical Deciduous forest.

Tropical Deciduous Forest

  • Monsoon forests in India

  • North Australia

  • Central America

  • Have seasonal changes

  • Trees shed leaves in dry months to conserve water

  • Sal, Teak, Neem, Shisham – Furnitures

  • Tiger, Lions, Elephants, Monkeys

Now they are mainly the monsoon forest area, now in earlier you have maximum percentage of plant that occurs as a tropical deciduous forest, usually the monsoon areas are prone to the tropical deciduous vegetation where during the monsoons you have amble of trees. north Australia regions of north Australia the monsoon region of India the regions of central America and kind of regions of the coastal Africa towards the central side are good example of tropical deciduous forest as I said the deciduous shed their leaves in summer months to conserve water and to reduce the process of transpiration common trees that are seen are Sal, Teak, Neem, Shisham. All these are used for making furniture again the common wild life that is seen is Tiger, Lions, Elephants and Monkeys. Now next is Temperate Evergreen Forest.

Temperate Evergreen Forest

  • Mid Latitudinal Coastal Areas

  • East margin of SE USA, S. China & SE Brazil

  • Oak, Pine, Eucalyptus

Now this is again evergreen but this flies in the temperate zone. Eastern margins of southeast USA, you have south china region, you have regions of southeast Brazil that is seen so all these regions have kind of temperate evergreen forests that is seen here usually it occurs on the coastal margins of the mid-latitude regions so middle attitude again from and , you have them towards the coastal areas the common vegetation that is seen as Oak, Pine, Eucalyptus. Next is deciduous forest.

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