NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 6: Natural Vegetation & Wildlife Completes Notes Part 2

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Natural Vegetation & Wildlife

Temperate Deciduous Forest

  • At higher latitudes

  • NE USA, China, New Zealand, Chile, W. Europe

  • Shed leaves in dry season

  • Oak, Ash, Beech

  • Deer, fox, wolf, pheasants & Monals

Now again in the mid latitudinal region they are present but they are deciduous that means all of them shed their leaves in one single season. They occur in the northeast margins of United States regions of New Zealand. Then you have china then west Europe region. So all those are the regions where you have temperate deciduous vegetation that is seen. The common tress are Oak, Ash, Beech. Among the wildlife you have Deer, fox, wolf. among the birds pheasants & Monals that are commonly seen in temperate deciduous forest. Now in India, temperate deciduous occurs in Sections in Himalayan Region where you have large population of wildlife. Now next is Mediterranean vegetation.

Mediterranean Vegetation

  • East and NE margins of temperate and deciduous forests

  • Mediterranean Sea Region, California, SW Africa, SW Australia & S. America

  • Hot dry summer – Thick Bark & Wax coated leaves – reduce transpiration

  • Mild rainy winters

  • Orchards of the World

  • Oranges, Figs, Olives, Grapes

This is the Mediterranean sea so the region surrounding the Mediterranean sea first of all forms a Mediterranean type of climate besides this you have the region of California. you have the region of south west Africa then you have southwest Australia and parts of south America that are seen with Mediterranean climate. This climate you have typical characteristics that shows you have rains in the winter so you have winter rainfall and dry summers. However the winter rainfall is mild not very extreme.

Mediterranean climate is also known as the orchards of the world. since you have numerous amount of citrus trees, citrus vegetation that grows here you Oranges, Figs, Olives, Grapes that are predominantly seen along with lemons so all the kind of citrus fruit are seen in the Mediterranean belt. they are also present in the east and the northeast margins of the temperate and the deciduous forest. However they are not seen on the western margin of the deciduous forest.

Again since the region is hot in summers they have thick bark, bark of the tree that’s the outermost layer of the tree is thick and wax coated leaves are present in order to reduce the transpiration during the summer months and it’s a kind of effort to conserve water for the plants during the summer months. The next is Coniferous forests.

Coniferous Forests

  • At Higher latitude (50 to 70 degrees)

  • Taiga (Pure in Russian)

  • Tall, Softwood Evergreen – Pulp – Paper, Matchbox, Packaging

  • Chir, Pine, Cidar

  • Silver Fox, Mink, Polar Bear

Coniferous vegetation is seen in both in high altitude regions and high latitudinal regions. As you move up on the globe latitudinal you would see coniferous vegetation. Also up the mountain you would see conifers vegetation. So both latitudinal extend and altitude affect so altitude is height on the mountain and latitude as you move up on the higher latitudes usually around 50 to 70 degrees north and south. Coniferous vegetation this coniferous forests are also known as Taiga. Taiga is a Russian word which in Russian means pure or untouched that means this region is very pure in the sense that you have the scenic beauty that is maintained. Then you have mostly the vegetation is softwood that is seen here, now this softwood is used for manufacturing of pulp. This pulp is used Paper Industries, Matchbox and Packaging industries most common trees that are seen here Chir, Pine, Cidar. Among the wildlife you have Silver Fox, Mink, Polar Bear. Next is Tropical Grasslands.

Tropical Grasslands

  • Either side of equator

  • Low to moderate rainfall

  • Tall upto 3 to 4 meter

  • East Africa – Savannas

  • Brazil – Campos

  • Venezuela - Llanos

  • Elephant, Zebra, Leopard, Deer, Giraffe

Now we move on to the next section that is grassland. Till now we were focusing on forest. We classified in starting that forest grassland and shrubs. Under to the tropical grasslands and the temperate grasslands now tropical occurs on either side of the equator so you have the equator and tropical grassland that are seen on either side of the equator. low to moderate rainfall is seen a trees are Tall up to 3 to 4 meters. Now in east Africa they are known as savannas. Then you have Brazil where they are known as Campos. Then you have Venezuela where they are known as Llanos. Common wild life is Elephant, Zebra, Leopard, Deer, and Giraffe. Now next is temperate grassland.

Temperate Grasslands

  • Mid latitude and interior of continent

  • Short and nutritious grass

  • Wild Buffalo, Bison, Antelope

  • Argentina – Pampas

  • N. America – Prairies

  • S. Africa – Velds

  • C. Asia – Steppe

  • Australia - Downs

Temperate Grasslands the grasses are more nutritious in the temperate belt. it occurs as we said in the middle attitudinal region and the interior parts of the continent the common wildlife is wild Buffalo, Bison, Antelope. In south America it is known as pampers, is North America it is known as Prairies then you have Central Asia it’s known as Steppe then you have South Africa where they are known as Velds in Australia they are known as Downs so these are the various names of the grasslands that are seen in various parts of the world so you have prairies, Pampas, Velds, Steppe and Downs.

Thorny Bushes

  • Dry areas

  • Western Margins of Continents

  • Scarce vegetation

  • Scanty rainfall

Now moving to the next that is the next was Shrubs that we classified now these shrubs are could be thorny bushes which occurs in the dry areas of the arid areas which are hot so you have the desert areas so desert region of Sahara, desert region of Thor in India the Arabian desert in central the south Arabian region so all these are examples of Thorny Bushes. Where you have scares vegetation very less rainfall most of the trees occur in form of cactus where stem is modified to leave, leave is modified to thorns and this is again to reduce the process of transpiration or water loss from the trees they usually occurs on the western margins of the continent so this is the Thorny Bushes.

Tundra Climate

  • Polar areas of Europe, Asia & N. America

  • Thick fur and skin to protect

  • Seal, Walrus, Musk Oxen, Arctic Owl, Polar Bear, Snow Fox

You have the extreme area the Tundra regions the north Polar Regions on the south regions of the Antarctica where you have a kind of very less trees that are seen most of the trees are in form of masses of likings that are seen on road entrance now most common animals that are seen here are Seal, Walrus, Musk Oxen, Arctic Owl, Polar Bear, Snow Fox. the animals have thick fur and skin to protect them from the cold temperature So this is what is the tundra climate.