NCERT Class 7 Geography Chapter 7: Human Environment – Settlement, Transport & Communication Completes Notes Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Human Environment – Settlement, Transport & Communication


  • Most common for short distances
  • Metalled (Pucca)
  • Unmetalled (Kutcha)
  • Subways (Underpaths) – Built Underground
  • Flyovers – Above the Structure
  • Manali- Leh Highway (Amongst world՚s highest roadways)

Now how do you move on road, road is mainly used for short distances. So for short distances you have roads that are used. Now roads could either be underground or as overfly. So you can have either road that is going here or a road that is going below the surface. This below the surface is would be known as Subways or under paths. The one that goes above the surface is known as the Flyovers. Roads can also be either metalled which is pucca road or Kuccha road that is unmetalled road. Now Manali - leh highway in India is among the world՚s highest roadways that have been built in India. Now next is railways.


  • Over long distances
  • Cheaper method
  • Steam Engine – Industrial Revolution
  • Diesel & Electric Engines
  • Superfast trains
  • India rail network is largest in Asia
  • Trans-Siberian Railway – Longest in World: From St. Petersburg to Valdivostok

What is the benefit of railways? Railways can move over longer distance. They are cheaper than roadways, now with the advent of industrial revolution, the first revolution that the world witness was the agricultural revolution then you have industrial revolution. With the advent of industrial revolution you had steam engines that came into prominence. slowly and gradually from steam engine we move to diesel engine and finally to electric engine and now we do have superfast train. India՚s rail network is largest among the Asia՚s network. However the longest network in the world is the Trans-Siberian railway line which moves from St. Petersburg to Valdivostok in Russia. The next is waterways.


  • Cheapest to carry goods for long distances
  • Inland waterway – Navigable Rivers (Ganga-Brahmaputra; Nile) and Lakes (Great Lakes)
  • Sea Routes: From one country to another
  • Major Ports: Mumbai, Los Angeles, Singapore, Sydney, Rotterdam

Waterways is the cheapest source and it can carry goods for long distances. You can have 2 ways of waterways either it could be inland waterways that moves within the rivers or within the country itself or you can have sea routes that help to move from one country to another country. Inland waterways either be navigable rivers or lakes example of navigable rivers are Ganga-Brahmaputra in India. Nile River in Africa and example of lakes would be great lake in North America that is United States. so you have five great lakes we call them as “HOMES” . H- Huron, O- Ontario, M- Michigan, E- Erie and S- Superior. Then you have major ports that are being established. for example in India you have Mumbai, Los Angeles in United States, Singapore, Sydney in Australia and Rotterdam in Europe. Now finally airways.


  • Fastest means of transport
  • Expensive – Higher cost of fuels
  • Affected by fog and storms
  • For inaccessible areas (helicopters)
  • In Natural Calamities – To rescue and provide food

Airways among the all is the fastest means of transport however it is the most expensive and this is expensive because of the higher cost of fuel that is involved in air transport. Again air transport is affected by fog and storms. But it is a boon for the areas which are inaccessible the hilly terrains. let՚s talk about regions which are inaccessible. So you have helicopters that can land on the accessibility terrains. Again it is a boon in case of natural calamities in cases of earthquakes or cyclones that hitter region. Airways prove means to rescue the citizen provide food, clothing and shelter facilities or transporting people from the disaster area to another area. so airways is again important in case of natural calamities. Now last is communication.


  • Process of conveying message
  • Messages by Birds
  • Postal System
  • Print Media
  • Electronic Media – e-mails, internet
  • Mass Media: Communicate to large number of people – Newspaper, Radio & TV
  • Satellites: For faster communication- For oil exploration, forest, water, minerals, weather, disaster warning
  • Wireless communication: Cellular Phones

What is communication? Communication is basically conveying message. I have a message I want to convey to you what are the various ways I can do it, I can either send it through a written post, I can release those as print media in the form of books, I can release those as electronic media through, internet through emails or through YouTube that՚s video so there are various ways however when this communication process started. It was mainly the messages were sent by birds of pigeon was the most commonly used bird. So you had to stick message to a pigeon and it would fly to another place and take your message.

Now what is mass media? When we want to communicate to large number of audience we use media which is known as mass media. Common examples are Newspaper, Radio & TV. Again nowadays what is coming to life as a wireless technology which service without wires? let՚s say for example even for computers if we talk about few generation few decades back we used to have wired mouse which was connected to a system, and now you have a kind of wireless mouse which does not have a wire with it similarly you have telephone cables that used to come and now you have cellular phones which are wireless. so wireless communication is again gaining momentum. And finally satellites, satellites are means for faster communication. They are mainly used to explore oil areas to explore water areas for forest exploration to forecast weather for disaster warming and disaster mitigation and mineral exploration are some of the venues where you have satellites that are being highly used.

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