NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter-1-Resources Complete Notes Part-1

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Now will start with class 8 geography chapter 1 resource, now complete class 8 geography focuses on various types of resources in first chapter understand water resources and basic classification for understanding the resources.


  • Utility or usability – water, vegetable, textbook etc.

  • Use gives it Value (Worth)

  • Value – Economic, Aesthetic

When we start with basic question what is resource? And why they are important? I can say anything which is for us is resource, for example water. Water is resource because we use it, similarly textbook, book, paper, vegetables, water, fruit, all this are used in daily life in one way and other and based on utility or usability of something we classify them resource.

Now whenever resource are you adding so it gives a some kind of value and value means what? A kind of value for one and all - can you imagine life without water, can you imagine life without tree, life without forest, similarly this value which is the worth of a resource can be either classified as an aesthetic value and economic value. When I say aesthetic value that means a value is added to its beauty or the natural surrounding, for example trees are important because they add to the beauty around the earth or I can see they have an economic importance because then provided fruits and vegetables. You have kind of various this necessary elements of essential elements that you get from the tree. So that is the value addition.

Now sometimes in the economics, value is added in such a manner that there is a kind of patent that come up this patent is a term up is used to indicate kind of branding for something that you have innovated or discovered on your own and you want that to be registered with your name, so there are various patent released by India, USA and globally and these patenting are kind of work around the various value for the resources.

  • Discovery of fire Cooking

  • Discovery of Wheel Transportation

  • Convert Water to Electricity (HEP)

Now how does substance become a resource with time and technology. We convert or we can say with incorporation of time and technology, a substance can become as a resource. For example, what, how does discovery of fire helped people? Discovery of fire occurred. When initially started no one knew the use for it. However now it is used for cooking, it’s used for burning, it’s used for fossil fuels so on and so on. Similarly with the invention of wheel, when it was discovered no one how that is would become a part of day-to-day life and how always wheel are used for each and every transportation. Most of the transportation vehicles that we use again. Water has been used to convert into electricity and we have hydroelectric power generation which is available from water so every substance with given time and technology has the capacity to convert into a resource.

Types of Resources

  • Natural Resources – From Nature with much modification

  • Human Made Resources – Technology, Bridges, Roads, Machinery

  • Human Resources – People (Knowledge, Skill) – Quantity & Ability

  • HRD: Improving quality of people’s skill

Now we about the types of resource broadly speaking we can say there are three major types.

Types of Resources

Types of Resources

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When I say natural resource are those resources which come directly from the nature so green plants trees, vegetables fruits are natural resources.

Human made resources are the resources that we have buildup for example Bridge, roads, machinery, vehicles. All those are built with use of technology and finally you have the most important resource that is the human resource itself. That is when people with knowledge and skill have the quanlity and ability to work around various issues and development of human resources is what is known as HRD or Human resource development. It aims at improving quality of people’s skill. So how we can bring betterment in the various field is what is governed under the HRD. This is the basic classification to understand the types of resource.

Natural Resource – Based on Development

  • Actual Resource – Quantity is Known (Ruhr in Germany for coal)

  • Potential Resource – Entire quantity not known (Uranium in Ladakh), in past it was windmills (now in Netherlands, Gujarat & Tamil Nadu Coast)

Now let’s move on to a detailed classification for natural resource. I can say natural resource can be classified base on various aspects so based on the development.

I can say there can be actual resources or potential resources. Actual resource are those resources which are actually present on the earth, so for example, I can say availability of coal in Germanys’ Ruhr area, availability of iron or Kudremukh in India. All these are actual resource which are moved and present. However there are potential resources, the entire quantity of which is unknown for example we say have huge uranium reserves in Ladakh region in India. In the past, wind mills were considered as a potential resource but now you have numerous windmills installed in region of Netherlands. In India you have in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu that have numerous windmills and these have become these are now not a potential resource but have become an actual resource now because we really know the presence of these resources so these are the actual resource and not the potential resource.

Natural Resource – Based on Origin

  • Biotic Resource – Living – Plants and Animals

  • Abiotic Resource – Non-Living – Soils, Rocks and Minerals

Now based on origin of resource we can say there can be two types of resources. These can be either biotic or abiotic. Biotic are those which are derived from living plants or animals. So they are derived from living organisms. However abiotic are nonliving so example of abiotic include soil rocks minerals etc.