NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter-3-Mineral and Power Resources Complete Notes Part-1

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Mineral and Power Resources

Let’s start with chapter 3 that is mineral and power resources now well first start with water mineral resources.


  • Naturally occurring substance with definite chemical composition

  • Physical Property: Color, Density or Hardness

  • Chemical Property: Solubility

Any substance that naturally occurs in the earth and has affix or I could say defiance chemicals of position is known as a mineral, now there two basic properties based on which we identify and classify minerals the first is the physical property that the appearance the shape the color the density or the hardness of the minerals or the chemicals property for example its solubility its reactivity. now when we classified minerals.

Classification of Minerals

Classification of Minerals

Classification of Minerals

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We can say minerals can be either metallic or nonmetallic. In nature the metallic minerals are again classified as ferrous and non-ferrous. Now the metallic mineral are those which have the component of metal in them so they have kind of luster or a shine and they are mainly found in igneous and metamorphic rock. On the other hand non-metallic, minerals include limestone, mica and all these are usually found in sedimentary rocks. Coal and petroleum are other non-metallic minerals that are found. Now this metallic minerals can be further classified as ferrous and non-ferrous ferrous are those which contain in iron so iron magnetite or of iron, then you have manganese are common example of ferrous minerals on the other hand non-ferrous would include gold, silver and copper.

Extraction of Minerals

Extraction of Minerals

Extraction of Minerals

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Now how are minerals extracted so when we talk about extraction there are three basic types

  • Mining so I take out the minerals from deep within the earth then

  • Drilling, drilling is kind of deep board that is been who would are put to extract the mineral for example petroleum is comes out through drill

  • Quarrying those occur at the surface so all the minerals present at the surface you would have quarrying activates that would be commonly seen.

Now next is the mining can be of two types it can be either open cast or shaft. So shaft is used if the mineral is present at a greater depth if this is the surface of earth and you have the mineral at a shallow depth you would use cast mining opencast mining, if it is at a greater depth you would use shaft mining. So mining again could be classified as either open cast or shaft mining now these were the various classification and extraction method coming on to the distribution of the minerals and the metals.

Distribution of Minerals

  • Iron-ore in north Sweden

  • Copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada

  • Iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa

  • Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France

  • Manganese deposits of Georgia & Ukraine

  • Phosphate beds of Algeria

If we talk about a worldwide scenario you have iron are which is abundant. Copper and nickel found in Canada Ontario area, then you have South Africa which is known for iron, nickel, chromites and platinum. In France you have huge number of limestone deposits and karst topography that could be seen. The underground structure that could be seen because of the limestone deposits in France and Turkey. Then you have Georgia and Ukraine which are known for manganese deposits and Algeria known for phosphate beds. Again for oil reserves so this is a kind of broad picture of distribution moving on to the individual country individual continent will first start with Asia.