NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter-3-Mineral and Power Resources Complete Notes Part-4 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Mineral and Power Resources

Conventional Sources of Energy

  • In common use for long – Firewood & Fossil Fuel
  • Firewood – Cooking & heating – 50 % in villages
Table Shows the Advantages and Disadvantages of Conventional Sources of Energy
  • Easy access
  • Provides energy to large number of people
  • Collection is time consuming
  • Polluting
  • Promoting greenhouse effect
  • Deforestation
  • Fossil Fuel – Coal, Petrol, Natural Gas

When we classify power resources there can be various ways to understand the power resources the classification that this book contains classifying it into either conventional our non-conventional resources. Now let՚s first understand what do we mean by conventional and non-conventional and it՚s important to understand that this is different from renewable and non-renewable resource. Now conventional if you look into our dictionary meaning it would say traditional so anything which we use traditionally which come under the conventional resources, so for example I can say fossil fuels burning of fire woods, burning of coal petroleum, hydropower all this would be conventional resources - this can be renewable or non-renewable; where most kindly these are non-renewable in nature on the other hand you have non-conventional resources which are not a kind of traditional resources that are being used for energy generation, for example, energy from biogas, energy from the solar energy, the wind energy, the waves energy all those are non-conventional in nature there is one important energy that՚s nuclear energy that has been parts of it and most of the people classified still under the non-conventional resources however now days it has become a kind of commonly used energy.

Some also try to classify it under the conventional section however for our lecture we are putting this under this is part of non-conventional in NCERT. Now the conventional as I said this has been in common use for a long time for example firewood and fuel wood. Now well move on the conventional resources one by one, the first one is firewood which is primarily used for cooking and heating and in used in more than fifty percent of the villages, it՚s easy to use it provides large energy but the main drawbacks are it՚s polluting, it consumes a lot of time and it also leads to deforestation - which affects our environment. So we move on to the next conventional source of energy that՚s the fossil fuels that can be again coal petroleum or natural gas taking about this one by one.


  • Domestic Use
  • Electricity – Thermal Power
  • Called Buried Sunshine
  • China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa & France
  • India: Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand
Table Shows the Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal
  • Extensively available
  • Efficient conversion to electricity
  • Polluting source
  • Bulky to transport

First you have coal. Coal is used for domestic purposes which is declining now a days it՚s more primarily used for electric purposes - for generation for thermal power plants. Coal is also known as Buried Sunshine found worldwide - you have reserves in China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa & France. In india the major coal reserves are found in Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand, it՚s available and is an efficient way for conversion of energy but it is polluting and bulky to transport, the next comes the petroleum.


  • Thick black liquid
  • Petra “Rock” + Oelum “Oil”
  • Between rock layers
  • Called Black Gold
  • Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Venezuela, USA, Algeria & Russia
  • India: Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai & deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers
Table Shows the Advantages and Disadvantages of Petroleum
  • Easier to transport (tankers)
  • Basis of petro-chemical industry
  • Depletion of oxygen due to oil spillage and gas leakage
  • Pollutants released caused acid rain
  • Exploration of new fuel is not easy

Petroleum which is derived from “Petra” and “Oleum” where Petra means “Rock” and Oelum means “Oil” that means it՚s a rock oil - it՚s also known as black gold it is found between the rock layers, it՚s it occurs as a thick black liquid. The countries rich in petroleum are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Venezuela, USA, Algeria & Russia. The exploration of this fuel is not easy. India has reserves and Digboi, Bombay High and deltas of Krishna and Godavari. Now delta՚s of Krishna and Godavari we have also found the gas deposits - now moving on to the next conventional source that is natural gas.

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