NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter-3-Mineral and Power Resources Complete Notes Part-5

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Mineral and Power Resources

Natural Gas

  • With petroleum deposits

  • Russia, Norway, UK , Netherlands

  • India: Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura & off shore in Mumbai

  • CNG: Eco-friendly & less pollution than petroleum

Table shows the Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Gas



  • Depletion of oxygen due to oil spillage and gas leakage

  • Pollutants released caused acid rain

  • Exploration of new fuel is not easy

  • Easier to transport (pipelines)

  • Cleaner than oil and coal

  • Cheaper than oil

Natural gas occurs along with the petroleum - the major countries where natural gas is explored as Russia, Norway, UK and Netherlands. In India you have reserves and in Krishna- Godavari Delta, Tripura and off shore of Mumbai one of the natural gas that is commonly used these days is CNG which is more eco-friendly and less polluting. It’s much cleaner than oil and coal and it’s cheaper than oil. The next conventional sources is Hydel power.

Hydel Power

  • Rainwater in dams fall from heights on turbine & it moves

  • Turns generator to produce electricity

  • 1/4th of total world’s electricity by hydel

  • Paraguay, Norway, Brazil & China

  • Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley

Table shows the Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydel Power



  • Non-polluting

  • Promotes irrigation and fishing

  • cheap

  • Displacement of local community

  • Inundates low

  • Expensive to setup

Now 1/4th of the world’s total energy comes from water. So what happens is the rain water gets into the dams and the water falls from great height on to a turbine which moves or rotates the turbine and the generator turns or produces the electricity. So you have Paraguay, Norway, Brazil & China which are the major producers of hydel power. In India some of the major hydropowerstations as Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunasagar and Damodar valley. These are some of the major projects these are non-polluting - they promote agriculture, fishing; they provide water for agriculture but a major limitation for hydropower is it displaces a lot of local people as construction of dam needs space and causes seismic disturbances or the disturbances in the earth’s surface and it’s expensive to setup.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

  • Solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy which are renewable

  • Solar Energy: Solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers

Table shows the Advantages and Disadvantages of Non Conventional Sources of Energy



  • Inexhaustible

  • Non polluting

  • Expensive

  • Diffused source, so gets wasted

As we said most of the renewable sources of energy which can be replenished again our non-conventional for example solar energy, wind, tidal are renewable. Under solar energy the best thing is its inexhaustible, it’s not polluting but it is expensive to use. The commonly used areas for solar or sun energy to be harnessed are Solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers and nowadays solar panels or solar lights and solar electricity has come into way. Then let’s move to wind energy.

Wind Energy

  • Lies in coastal areas and mountain passes

  • Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain

Table shows the Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Energy



  • Non-polluting

  • Low cost production of electricity once setup

  • Safe and clean

  • Noise pollution

  • Wind mills costly to setup

  • Disturbs radio and T.V. reception

  • Harmful to birds

Wind energy which is usually seen either in the coastal area or in the region of the mountain pass so the region between them where you have huge wind heavy winds that flow - you have wind energy that is harnessed. Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain are some of the major region where you have harnessing of wind energy - it’s again non-polluting in nature, you have low cost setup, it’s more safe and clean but it produces kind of lot of noise and it’s harmful to the birds which fly in the nearby area. Then you have geothermal energy.

Geothermal Energy

  • Temperature in interior of earth rises

  • Hot springs – Cooking, Bathing

  • USA (largest geothermal power plants), Philippines, Iceland, New Zealand, Central America

  • India: Manikaran (HP), Puga (Ladakh)

Table shows the Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy



  • Clean ecofriendly and always available

  • Located far away from cities and so costly to transport the electricity

Geothermal Energy the temperature of the earth’s interior is very high - you have kind of hot water that flows as hot springs from the underground. In India you have common example as Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga valley in Ladakh. United states of America is the largest you geothermal power plant in world besides that you have Philippines, Iceland, New Zealand, Central America where you have huge number of hot springs. It is eco-friendly, it’s always available but it is usually far from the cities as a result it is difficult to harness geothermal energy. Now next is tidal energy.