NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Complete Notes Part 1

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Agriculture

Now start with geography chapter 4, we will talk about agriculture. Let’s discuss various kinds of economic activity and why will be studying agriculture topic today.

Economic Activities

  • Primary – Agriculture, Fishing, Gathering

  • Secondary – Manufacturing

  • Tertiary – Services – Trade, Transport, Banking, Advertisement

  • World – 50% in Agri.

  • India – 2/3rd in agri.

When we classify economic activities there are mainly three activities that we classify in as: primary, secondary and the tertiary activity. When we say primary activity that means we are using product directly from the nature. So for example agriculture, fishing, hunting, gathering are all these are kind of primary activities which involve direct interaction with the nature. When you are processing this primary activates you require secondary sector to be developed and that sector is mainly manufacturing. Under the tertiary sector which talks about the various services you have Banking, Advertisement Trade, Transport so all this are tertiary sector. Agriculture falls into the primary economic activity, so under this we will be studying agriculture and in the next topic for NCERT we have industries which is a secondary sector.

So we will be understanding agriculture today. Now if we look onto the global picture we have nearly fifty percent of the total people who are engaged into agriculture in India. It’s nearly two third of the population that is engaged with agriculture. So agriculture definitely forms a major a substantial portion of the total economic condition.

Conditions for Agriculture

  • Ager “soil” + Culture “Cultivation”

  • Favorable Climate & Soil

  • Arable Land – Land on which crop grows

Kinds of culture in addition to agriculture

Kinds of Cultures

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Arable land on the map

Arable Land in the World

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Now the term agriculture is derived from two words that is “Ager” + “Culture” “Ager” means “Soil” and “Culture” means “Cultivation”. So cultivation on soil is what is agriculture. Now we have various terms that you can see as Agri + Culture that is cultivation on soil. Then you have sericulture that is cultivation of silkworms. You have Pisciculture that deals with fishes, viticulture which deals with grapes and finally horticulture which deals with fruits and gardening. So these are the various commonly talked about terms that we relate or associate with culture and we have the various functions that we have seen here.

Now what is the prerequisite condition or the primary condition for agriculture to develop? The primary condition is first the climate and secondary the soil. If the climate is optimum, we classify this as temperature and rainfall and some factor that would be considered would be for humanity and for some crops. We might also see the frost condition, the frost free days which is important for cotton cultivation. Climate and the soil are important parameters. Various kind of soil the black soil, red soil, alluvial soil, loamy soil and so on.