NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 4: Agriculture Complete Notes Part 3

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Major Crops

  • Rice: Tropical & Sub-tropical – High temperature, humidity & rain; China, India, Sri Lanka, Japan & Egypt

  • Wheat: Moderate temperature & rain, USA< Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia – in India in winters

  • Millets: Coarse, Sandy, Low rain & moderate temperature – Jowar, Bajra, Ragi; Nigeria, China, Niger

  • Maize: Moderate temp & lot of sunshine - N. America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, Mexico

We known there are few of the major crops that you might have heard off and on like rice and wheat the most common of cereals. So rice is the tropical and subtropical crop which requires high temperature, humidity and rainfall. Commonly found in the coastal areas of India along with China, Sri Lanka, Japan & Egypt. Then you have wheat cultivation which requires moderate temperature and rainfall grown in United States, Canada Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India have winters which is prime season for wheat.

Then you have millets. Millets is a coarse grain. Since it is coarse grain you have crops which require less rainfall and less temperature as compared to wheat and rice. The common millets are Jowar, Bajra, Ragi commonly grown in Nigeria, China, Niger and semi-arid parts of India. Maize cultivation is seen in moderate temperature where lots of sunshine is available. Abundant cultivation in North America, Brazil, China followed by Canada, India, Mexico.

  • Cotton: High Temp., Light Rain, 210 frost free days, black & alluvial soil; China, India, USA, Pak., Brazil, Egypt

  • Jute: Golden Fibre, High temp., heavy rain, alluvial soil, tropical; India & Bangladesh

  • Coffee: Warm & wet, loamy soil; Brazil, Columbia & India

  • Tea: Heavy rainfall throughout year, plantation, loamy soil, labor; Kenya, India, China & Sri Lanka

Then you have cotton which is unique crop and requires at least 210 days which are frost free, then you have light rainfall and high temperature. The crop is grown on mainly black and alluvial soil. China, India and US are good examples. Jute is also known golden fiber as it requires high temperature and high rainfall with high humidity and grows mainly on the alluvial soil. It’s a tropical plant and then you have India and Bangladesh as the prime producers for jute, coffee. You require a warm and wet climate with loamy soil. So many characteristics varies with each of the crop. Then you have Brazil, Columbia & India which have coffee. Tea grows in a region where you have good rainfall throughout the year so all 365 days you have off and on showers and it is again plantation crop, that grows well into loamy soil, requires a lot of labors like Kenya, India, China & Sri Lanka.

Agricultural Development

  • Increasing the cropped area

  • Number of crops grown

  • Improving irrigation facilities

  • Use of fertilizers and HYV seeds

  • Mechanization

  • Farm in India (1.5 hectares) vs USA (250 hectares)

Now how has agriculture being developed in India or in the various developing nations? The prime requirement for developing agriculture is we need to increase the cropped area, the number of crops are growing, the irrigation facilities, the amount of fertilizers and mechanization should be involved. Now the use of fertilizers and HYV seeds was a prime requisite which was another idea of green revolution that we will discuss in further lesson. When we talk about doing revolution in detail. So with there was lots of agriculture development and this green revolution came into two phases so we will understand the phases for the green revolution as well.

Now let’s understand the concept of farming in India in contrast to America. Let’s say, in India the average farm size is 1.5 hectares in contrast to America where there could be a farm size of 250 hectares. What would be the different in the pattern of farming. Definitely in small land size you would have subsistence farming as compared to huge land size where you might go for commercial farming. Since it would be commercial it would be highly useful and employee lot of technology and machinery into it. However in a country like India it would be definitely labor intensive project because easy availability of labor is again primary requirement so you have subsistence farming that works around with easy availability of labor. This is a kind of contrast in the various agricultural pattern that you can see across the globe.

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