NCERT History Class 6 – Notes of Chapter 9: Traders, Kings and Pilgrims

  • Sangam poems mention the muvendar is a Tamil word that means three chiefs which is used for the heads of three ruling families, the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas, in south India they became powerful around 2300 years ago.

  • Each of the three Chiefs had two centres of power:

    1. one inland

    2. one on the coast

  • Two cites were very important from those six, Puhar or Kaveripattinam are the two most important cities in the port of the Cholas, and Madurai which is the capital of the Pandyas.

  • The rulers did not collect regular taxes. Instead, they required and received gifts from the people.

    Pandyas dynasty

    Pandyas Dynasty

    Pandyas dynasty

  • A dynasty known as the Satavahanas which is became powerful in western India about 200 years later.

  • Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni was the most important ruler of the Satavahanas which was known as lords of the dakshinapatha, literally the route leading to the south.

Silk Route & Kushans

  • Some China’s people went to cold lands on foot, horseback, and on camels and carried silk with them and the paths they followed came to be known as the Silk Route.

    Silk Road

    Sikh Road

    Silk Road

  • At that some of the kings had tried to control route with the aim to get taxes, tributes and gifts that were carried by traders travelling along the route but in return, they protected the agents who passed finished their kingdoms from attacks by robbers.

  • Kushanas was the most popular rulers among them who have tried to controlled the Silk Route were the, who have ruled over central Asia and north-west India around 2000 years ago.

  • Their two chief centres of power were:

    1. Peshawar

    2. Mathura

  • Taxila was also included in their kingdom.

    Kushan Empire

    Kushan Empire

    Kushan Empire

  • During rule of Kushan a branch of the Silk Route extended from Central Asia down to the havens at the mouth of the river Indus, from where silk was travelled westwards to the Roman Empire.

  • The Kushanas brought gold coins. These were secondhand by traders with the Silk Route.

Spread of Buddhism

  • Kanishka was the most popular Kushana ruler, who had ruled about 1900 years ago.

  • He organized a Buddhist council, where researchers met and discussed important substances.

  • Ashvaghosha, a poet has composed a biography of the Buddha, the Buddhacharita, was the part of Kanishka court and other Buddhist researchers along with him is scholars now created writing in Sanskrit.

  • A new form of Buddhism, known as Mahayana Buddhism and now it is known as developed.

  • Here it got 2 distinct features:

    1. Earlier, the Buddha’s presence was shown in statuette by using definite signs. Now statues are made. From Mathura and Taxila.

    2. Regarded with belief in Bodhisattvas. Previously once they reached Enlightenment they could live in complete isolation and meditate in peace.

  • Now they sustained in the world to teach and help other people and this type of worship prevailed all over Central Asia, China, and later to Korea and Japan.

  • Traders probably lived in cave priories during their travels.

  • The older form of Buddhism which is known as Theravada Buddhism was more popular in areas like Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, and other parts of Southeast Asia and Indonesia.

  • About 1600 years ago FaXian was the well-known Chinese Buddhist travelers, who came to the subcontinent, Xuan Zang came about 1400 years ago and I-Qing, who came about 50 years after Xuan Zang.

Bhakti

  • The worship of certain idols, which became a main feature of Hinduism and then grown in position were the generations of additional religion.

  • Anyone either rich or poor, appropriate to the so-called ‘high’ or ‘low’ castes, man or woman, are able to follow the path of Bhakti.

  • In the Bhagavad Gita the idea of Bhakti is current.

  • Those who followed the system of Bhakti underscored devoutness and separate worship of a god or goddess, slightly than the performance of decorative sacrifices and once this idea acceptance increased, artists made beautiful images of these deities.

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