NCERT History Class 6 – Notes of Chapter 4: In the earliest cities

Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization


  • Around 4700 years ago these cities were established. And many of these cities were separated into two or more parts.

    1. The part to the west was smaller but higher: strongholds

    2. The part to the east was larger but lower: lower town

  • The elements were placed in a meshing design which made walls strong.

  • Special buildings were created on the citadel for example, in Mahenjodaro, a tank: Great Bath.

  • Kalibangan and Lothal had fire platforms.

  • Mahenjodaro, Harappa and Lothal had rich store houses.

  • Houses were has one or two storeys high and the rooms are built around a courtyard and most of the houses had a separate showering area, and some had wells to supply water.

  • Many of these cities also had covered plumbing.

  • Houses, sanitations and streets were possibly scheduled and built at the same time.

  • Maximum numbers of the things are made of stone, shell and metal, counting copper, bronze, gold and silver.

  • Tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels are made from copper and bronze and Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels.

  • Harappan also made seals using stone in rectangular shape and had an animal figured on them and also made pots with beautiful black designs.

  • At Mehrgarh from about 7000 years ago Cotton was probably grown.

  • Some women and men may have been experts to perform crafts.

  • The Harappan got the copper probably from present-day Rajasthan and even from Oman and tin probably from present-day Afghanistan and Iran.

  • Gold might had come from the present-day Karnataka.

  • To dig the earth a new tool, the plough for turning were used for the soil and planting seeds.

  • Some irrigation form was used because this region does not receive heavy rainfall due to Dholavira was located at Khadir Beyt in the Rann of Kutch.

  • Dholavira was distributed into three parts but two parts are other Harappan cities.

  • Lothal mounted nearby the Sabarmati River so the raw materials like semi-precious stones were basically available.

  • A dockyard at Lothal Ships and boats came from the sea and finished the river channel.

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