NCERT History Class 6 – Notes of Chapter 4: In the Earliest Cities (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Indus Valley Civilization

Harappa

  • Around 4700 years ago these cities were established. And many of these cities were separated into two or more parts.
  • The part to the west was smaller but higher: strongholds
  • The part to the east was larger but lower: lower town
  • The elements were placed in a meshing design which made walls strong.
  • Special buildings were created on the citadel for example, in Mahenjodaro, a tank: Great Bath.
  • Kalibangan and Lothal had fire platforms.
  • Mahenjodaro, Harappa and Lothal had rich store houses.
  • Houses were has one or two storeys high and the rooms are built around a courtyard and most of the houses had a separate showering area, and some had wells to supply water.
  • Many of these cities also had covered plumbing.
  • Houses, sanitations and streets were possibly scheduled and built at the same time.
  • Maximum numbers of the things are made of stone, shell and metal, counting copper, bronze, gold and silver.
  • Tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels are made from copper and bronze and Gold and silver were used to make ornaments and vessels.
  • Harappan also made seals using stone in rectangular shape and had an animal figured on them and also made pots with beautiful black designs.
  • At Mehrgarh from about 7000 years ago Cotton was probably grown.
  • Some women and men may have been experts to perform crafts.
  • The Harappan got the copper probably from present-day Rajasthan and even from Oman and tin probably from present-day Afghanistan and Iran.
  • Gold might had come from the present-day Karnataka.
  • To dig the earth a new tool, the plough for turning were used for the soil and planting seeds.
  • Some irrigation form was used because this region does not receive heavy rainfall due to Dholavira was located at Khadir Beyt in the Rann of Kutch.
  • Dholavira was distributed into three parts but two parts are other Harappan cities.
  • Lothal mounted nearby the Sabarmati River so the raw materials like semi-precious stones were basically available.
  • A dockyard at Lothal Ships and boats came from the sea and finished the river channel.

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