NCERT History Class 6 – Notes of Chapter 6: New Questions and Ideas

After Samsara belongs to three religions Hinduism, Buddhisam and Jainism

Image of Religions Incorporating After Samsara

After Samsara belongs to three religions Hinduism, Buddhisam and Jainism

  • Cities affluent and lifestyles were altering in villages after Mahajanapadas and then many thinkers were started to appreciate these changes in society. They probably want to recognize as true connotation of life

    Map of India with cities important for Buddhisam

    Map Explaining Main Areas for Buddhisam

    Map of India with cities important for Buddhisam

Buddha

  • Buddha fit in to a small gana known as the Sakya gana, and was a Kshatriya.

  • He decided to conclude his own path to realization and meditation for days under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar, where he reached enlightenment and then he was renowned as the Buddha or the Wise One.

  • He taught for the first time at Sarnath, near Varanasi.

  • He had taken his last breath at Kusinara.

  • The Buddha had told that life is full of suffering and unhappiness; he told that this is formed because we have desires and requirements and he had defined this as Thirst or Tanah and he had teach that the continual desire could be removed by following limitation in everything.

  • He also told that people to be kind, and give respect to all the lives of others, counting animals.

  • He had told that outcomes of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, touch us both in this life and the next.

  • He also revitalized people to think for them.

Upanishads

  • Other thinkers also had tried to find answers of difficult questions like “life after death”, performing of “ritual sacrifices” etc. before Buddha.

  • According to them there was something that last even after death and they had named it atman or the individual soul and the Brahman or worldwide soul and also believed that both the atman and the Brahman were one.

  • These concepts were recorded in the Upanishads and recognized as Vedic texts.

Jainism

  • Vardhamana Mahavira a most famous thinker of the Jainas was a contemporary of Buddha.

  • Vardhamana Mahavira was a prince of Kshatriya, Lichchhavis a group which was part of the Vajji sangha.

  • His simple policy is “men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes” and also has to follow very strictly the rules of ahimsa, which means that not hurting or killing any living beings.

  • For most men and women it was very difficult to follow these severe rules like continue nude or upholding celibacy eg: farmers find it difficult to follow because they can’t wild plant out bugs.

  • Normal people were able to understand the teachings because it is in Prakrit language.

  • Traders had mostly maintained Jainism.

The sangha

  • The Mahavira and the Buddha both felt that only those who left their homes could gain true knowledge and they decided for them to stay composed in the sangha, an association of those who left their homes.

  • Vinaya Pitaka is the book which includes instructions for the Buddhist sangha.

  • And peoples including brahmins, kshatriyas, merchants, labourers, barbers, courtesans, children and slaves who engaged with the sangha led simple lives.

Monasteries

  • During the rainy season, when it was very difficult to travel only at that time both Buddhists and Jainists remained in one place.

  • These shelters were called viharas and the initial viharas were made of wood, and then of brick. Some were even in caves that were dug out in knolls, particularly in western India.

System of ashramas

  • Brahmins developed this ashramas at the same time of Buddha and Jain.

  • It is used as for a stage of life in its place of people live and meditates.

  • Four ashramas were recognised:

    1. Brahmacharya

    2. Grihastha

    3. Vanaprastha

    4. Samnyasa

    Image dipicting the 4 ashramas were recognised: I. Brahmacharya II. Grihastha III. Vanaprastha IV. Samnyasa

    Image Dipicting Ashrama's

    Image dipicting the 4 ashramas were recognised: I. Brahmacharya II. Grihastha III. Vanaprastha IV. Samnyasa

  • Women were not allowed to study the Vedas, and they had to follow the ashramas chosen by their husbands normally.

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