NCERT Class 4 Science: Adaptation in Plants Complete Notes Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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9. Plants such as the Hydrilla and tape grass grow inside water. These are called underwater or submerged plants.

Underwater Plants
  • Their roots fix them to the muddy soil.
    • Their stems are flexible and have air spaces.
    • They have narrow, thin leaves with no stomata.

10. Plants such as the duck weed and water hyacinth float freely on the surface of water. These are called floating plants.

Water Plants
  • Like sponges they have empty pores to absorb air.
    • They are generally small in size
    • They have thick, heavily branched, dark fibrous roots underneath the water.

11. Sticky swamps and marshy areas contain clayey soil. The roots of plants in swamps and marshy areas grow outside the soil and water as mud is poor is oxygen content. They are called breathing roots. Mangroves trees are such an example.


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