NCERT Class 4 Science: Living and Non Living Things Complete Notes

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Key Notes –

1. The earth has an amazing variety of living and non-living things.

Classification of living and non living

Classification of Living and Non Living

Classification of living and non living

2. The dependence of animals and plants on each other as well as on the non-living things around them is called interdependence in nature.

Producer and consumer

Producer and Consumer

Producer and consumer

3. Plants and animals (including human) breathe in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide during respiration.

4. Plants use the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to make food by a process called photosynthesis.

Light and sun

Light and Sun

Light and sun

5. During photosynthesis, plants give out oxygen which is again reused for respiration. Thus, living things cannot survive without oxygen as well as carbon dioxide.

6. Water carries food to various parts of our body to generate energy. We also need water for removing waste from our body in the form of urine and sweat.

7. Plants absorb dissolved minerals from the soil through their roots.

From soil to animals

From Soil to Animals

From soil to animals

8. Soil provides food and shelter for many other animals such as earthworm, ants, termites, snail, centipedes, moles, rats, rabbits, etc.

9. Sunlight is also required for the process of germination. Animals also depend on sunlight for light and warmth. Life would have been impossible on earth without sunlight.

10. Plants and animals are also dependent on each other. Animals are dependent on plants for food, shelter and balance of oxygen in air.

Plants and animals

Plants and Animals

Plants and animals

11. Plants are also dependent on animals for regeneration.

12. Animals such as butterfly, bees carry some small grains called pollen grains from one flower to another, without which such plants cannot grow a baby plant. In this way, animals help in pollination.

13. Animals also eat the fruits and scatter the seeds by dropping them on the ground. This process is called dispersal of seeds.

14. The worms and insects thrive in the soil and help in loosening the soil that helps circulation of air into the soil.

15. The bacteria and fungi present in the soil help in breaking down dead plants and animals. This process is called decomposition.

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