Class 6 Science Chapter 3 Fibre to Fabric, Types of Fibre, Natural, Synthetic (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Fibre to Fabric

Fibre

  • These are thread like structures and are long, thin, and flexible.
  • Availability in the form of thin and continuous strand.
  • They can be spun into yarns and then made into fabrics.
Classification of Fibres

Natural Fibres

  • These fibres are obtained from plants, animals, or mineral sources.
  • Cotton, silk, wool, etc. are some of the examples.
Animal Fibres
  • Fibres obtained from animals. Examples are wool, silk etc.
  • Wool is obtained from sheep, goats, and camels. It is used for making warm clothes, carpets, and upholstery.
  • Silk is obtained from cocoons of the silk moth. Eggs, larva, pupa, and adult are the four stages in the life cycle of silk moth.
Plant Fibres
Cotton
  • Fibres obtained from plants.
  • Towels, bed-sheet, curtains, saris, etc. are some of the clothes that can be made using cotton.
  • Cotton is used for making clothes. It is mainly cultivated in states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Madhya Pradesh. Cotton needs black clayey soil and warm climate.

Ginning

  • A process in which cotton seeds are removed from pods.
  • This process can be done using both hands and machines.
  • Jute is a vegetable fibre and can be spun into strong threads.

Spinning

It is a process of making yarn from fibre.

Weaving

In this process two sets of yarn are arranged together to make a fabric.

Knitting

  • This is done using both hands and machines.
  • In this process only two yarns are used.
Jute
  • It is obtained from the stem of the jute plant.
  • It is grown in alluvial soil and is found in the Delta Region of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers.
  • Jute is mainly grown in the states of Bihar, Assam, and West Bengal.
  • Jute fibre is pale- yellow in colour.
  • Shopping bags, ropes, carpets, etc. can be made using jute fibre.
Advantages of Natural Fibres
  • Comfortable.
  • Less harmful to the environment.
  • Non allergic to skin.
Disadvantages of Natural Fibres
  • Expensive
  • Variation in length, fineness, etc.
  • Natural calamities do affect the availability of the natural fibres.

Synthetic Fibres

  • These are the man-made polymers and are quite strong, wrinkle- resistant and quick drying.
  • Used in making clothes, neck-ties, sails, sweater, shawls, carpet, etc.
Rayon

Also known as artificial silk is made from wood pulp.

Nylon
  • The first synthetic fibre and one of the strongest.
  • Can be used for sleeping bags, parachutes, ropes, etc.
Advantages of Synthetic Fibres
  • Easy to maintain.
  • Quick washing and drying.
  • Cheaper than natural fibres.
  • Durable and easily available.
Disadvantages of Synthetic Fibres
  • Doesnีšt absorb moistures.
  • Rough feel is there.
  • Discomfort in a hot climate.

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