Class 6 Science Chapter 7 Plants Getting to Know Plants, Herbs, Shrubs, Trees, Creepers, Climbers, Root and Stem, Leaf (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Getting to Know Plants

Three Types of Plants

Three Types of Plants

Herbs

  • Plants with green and tender stems are called herbs.
  • These plants are usually sort and may not have many branches.
  • Wheat, paddy, cabbage, etc. are some of the examples.

Shrubs

  • These plants develop branches near the base of a stem.
  • The stem is hard but not very thick.
  • Lemon, Coriander, Rose, etc. are some of the examples.

Trees

  • These plants are very tall and have hard and thick stem.
  • Much above the ground, stems have branches in the upper part.
  • Mango, banyan, acacia, coconut, etc. are some of the examples.

Some Other Types of Plants

Creepers

  • These are the plants with weak stems that cannot stand upright but spread on the ground.
  • Pumpkin, Watermelon, etc. are some of the examples.

Climbers

  • These are the plants with weak stem and need support.
  • Cucumber, bean, etc. are some of the examples.
Creepers and Climbers

Roots and Stem

Root

  • It is the underground part of a plant and is usually pale in colour.
  • They perform important functions such as holding the plant firmly in the soil and absorbing water and minerals from the soil.
Plant with Roots and Without Roots
Tap Root
  • It is a large, central root through which other roots sprout laterally.
  • A taproot is typically somewhat straight and very thick.
  • Tapering in shape and grows directly downward.
  • Pea, radish, carrot, mango, etc. are some of the examples.
Fibrous Root
  • Usually formed by thin, moderately branching roots growing from the stem.
  • It forms a dense network of roots closer to the soil surface.
  • Wheat, rice, and corn, etc. are some of the examples.

Stem

  • It usually grows above the ground.
  • It bears leaves, branches, buds, flowers, and fruits.
  • Node is the point from where branches or leaves grow.
  • Internode is the portion of a stem between two consecutive nodes.
  • Functions of stem:
    • Provides structural support to the plant.
    • Water and minerals are carried to different parts of the plant from the roots.
    • In plants like potato, ginger, etc. stem undergoes modification for food storage.

Leaf

  • It is the thin, flat, and green structure arising from the node of the stem.
  • Chlorophyll is a green-coloured pigment that gives green colour to the leaves.
  • Lamina is the flat green portion of the leaf.
  • Petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
Different Parts of a Leaf

Venation

  • It is the arrangement of veins in a leaf.
  • Reticulate venation is the network like structure made by veins. Some of the examples are leaves of banyan, mango, etc.
  • Parallel venation is the veins running parallel to each other. Some of the examples are leaves of paddy, wheat, grass, etc.
Reticulate and Parallel Venation

Stomata

  • Small openings on the lower surface of a leaf.
  • It is through stomata only that gases enter or exit the leaf.
  • Excess of unwanted water gets removed through stomata in the form of water vapour.

Transpiration

  • It is the process of water movement through a plant along with its evaporation from different parts such as leaves, stems, and flowers.
  • Through stomata a major portion of transpiration happens.

Functions of Leaf

  • To produce food for the plant by photosynthesis.
  • Stomata in leaves also facilitate breathing by leaves.
  • They also protect the plants from grazing animals.
  • Also helpful in storing food and water.

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