Class 6 Science Chapter 9 Living Beings & Habitat, Components of Habitat, Living and Non-Living Things (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Living Organisms and Their Surroundings

Characteristics of Living Beings

  • They need food for survival.
  • They respire.
  • Food gives the necessary energy to carry out various activities apart from providing raw materials for growth and repair.
  • They show locomotion and movement.
  • Living beings produce their own likes.


  • Taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide during respiration.
  • Energy is produced due to the burning of food and the same is utilized for carrying out various activities.
  • In other words, respiration can be defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment right up to the cells within tissues followed by the removal of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
Different Types of Organs Used for Breathing
  • Humans, birds, snakes, etc. use their lungs for breathing.
  • Small creatures like earthworms breathe through their skin.
  • Fish breathe through gills.
  • Frogs use their skin for breathing. The mucus glands in the skin help in absorbing dissolved oxygen from the air.
  • Creatures like dolphin and whale take in air through blowhole.


  • This is the process of removing toxic or harmful substances from the body.
  • Some of the examples of excretory products are that of urine and carbon dioxide.


  • Some animals give birth to young ones while some animals lay eggs.
  • In case of plants, there are some who produce seeds germinating and developing into a new plant while there are some plants who reproduce by means like through stems or roots.


  • It refers to the surrounding in which a living being lives.
  • Examples of habitat are Home for humans, Nest for birds, Rivers and ponds for fish, Tree for a squirrel, etc.

Components of Habitat

Biotic Component

Living beings form the biotic component.

Examples of Biotic Factors


Examples are plants, algae, bacteria.


  • Cow, goat, etc are the primary consumers.
  • Lion, tiger, etc are the secondary consumers.


Examples are fungi, bacteria, etc.


Feeds on dead and decaying organisms.

Abiotic Component
  • The non-living things form the abiotic component.
  • Some of the examples are soil, air, water, temperature, humidity, pH, etc.

Types of Habitat

Types of Habitat
Terrestrial Habitat
  • This is the habitat on land.
  • This habitat can be further categorized as:
    • Forests
    • Grasslands
    • Coastal
    • Mountains
    • Deserts
Aquatic Habitat
  • This is the habitat in water.
  • This habitat can be further categorized as:
    • Oceans
    • Rivers
    • Lakes
    • Ponds
    • Swamps

Energy Flow in Ecosystem

  • Flow of energy from one trophic level to another trophic level.
  • The flow of energy is always unidirectional in nature.
  • Flow of energy in a sequential order from:

  • At each trophic level only 10 % of the total energy is used as a result of which the Autotrophic organisms get the highest amount of energy as compared to heterotrophs, decomposers, etc.

Difference between Living and Non-Living Things

Difference between Living and Non-Living Things
Living ThingsNon-Living Things
Can move on their own.Cannot move on their own.
They grow with time.Don՚t grow with time.
Need air for breathingThere is no breathing
They reproduce.They don՚t reproduce.
Examples are human beings, plants, and animals.Examples are book, pencil, ball, bat, etc.

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