Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia:

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Plantae are multicellular, autotrophic eukaryotes, have specialized reproductive organs, unique cell structures, produce food using photosynthesis and cells have distinct cellulose walls. All are embryophytes. Kingdom Plantae is classified as under;

Image showing classification of kingdom Plantae (Embryophyta).

Image Showing Classification of Kingdom Plantae.

Image showing classification of kingdom Plantae (Embryophyta).

Bryophyta (Bryophytes):

Bryophytes are small, non-vascular land plants that require water for reproduction. They are very small in structure and are considered as important members of our ecosystem.

Image showing classification of Bryophytes.

Image Showing Classification of Bryophytes.

Image showing classification of Bryophytes.

The reproduction process is carried in their spores. They are non-flowering plant and are found mainly growing on the ground, on other plants and on rocks. They play a vital role in preventing soil erosion.

Image showing examples of bryophytes; moss, liverwort and hornwort.

Image Showing Examples of Bryophytes.

Image showing examples of bryophytes; moss, liverwort and hornwort.

The plants show gametophytic and sporophytic generations. The plant body is thallus and gametophytic and is independent and autotrophic in bryophytes. The thallus is undifferentiated into stem, leaves and roots and mainly consists of a flat leaf like body, which is dorsiventrally differentiated and dichotomously or irregularly branched. Moss plants have stem and leaf like parts but true roots are absent. Rhizoids are present to carry out the functions of roots. Rhizoids help in absorption and anchorage of the plant in the substratum. In certain bryophytes scales are present which are multicellular and perform protective function. Vegetative reproduction largely multiplies and form special structures such as tubers, gemmae bulbils etc. and in sexual reproduction, sex organs are multicellular. The male reproductive organs (antheridium) female reproductive organs (archegonium) are produced in the sex organs. Male and female gametes fuse to give rise to a zygote which develops into a sporophyte. The gametophyte produces haploid gametes. After fertilization the oospore gives rise to diplopod sporophyte. The sporophyte produces the spores by meiosis. The spores give rise to the gametophyte. Thus both sporophyte and gametophyte shows alternation of generations.

Comparison of gametophytic and sporophytic phase:

Image showing comparison of two phases.
Image showing comparison of gametophytic and sporophytic phases.

Gametophytic phase

Sporophytic phase

Haploid phase

Diploid phase

Has sex organs

Has spore producing structure

Produces gametes

Produces spores

Gametes are produced by mitosis

Spores are produced by meiosis

Dominant phase occupies most of the life period

Short lived phase

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