Major phyla included in kingdom Animalia Part 1

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  • Phylum Porifera (Includes sponges): All are marine and non-motile organisms fixed to the solid surface. The body has many pores, canals and chambers through which water flows. Large aperture called osculum at the upper end. Body encloses a large cavity called sponocoel. Reproduce asexually by budding and by sexually through fertilization. Examples: Sycon, Euplectella, Euspongia, Spongilla, Leucosolenia, etc.

    Image showing phylum porifera; (a) Sycon; (b) Euplectlella; (c) Euspongia

    Image Showing Phylum Porifera.

    Image showing phylum porifera; (a) Sycon; (b) Euplectlella; (c) Euspongia

  • Phylum Cnidaria (Includes hydroids, jelly fishes, sea anemone, corals): Body with no head and no segmentation. These animals have germ layers; ectoderm and endoderm, one layer makes up cells on the outer side of the body (epidermis) and other layer makes the inner lining of the body (gastrodermis). Body contains tentacles. They contain nematocysts called Cnidoblasts. Reproduction may be asexually or sexually. Examples: Hydra, Obelia, sea anemone, Aurelia, etc.

    Image showing exmaples of Cnidaria; sea anemone and Hydra.

    Image Showing Examples of Cnidaria.

    Image showing exmaples of Cnidaria; sea anemone and Hydra.

  • Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flat worms): These are first triploblastic animals. Body is bilaterally symmetrical, elongated and dorsoventrally flattened. They possess a mouth but no anus. They either free living or parasitic or hooks or both for attachment to the body of the host. Reproduce by mostly sexually and few asexually. Examples: Planaria, tapeworm, liver fluke, etc.

    Image showing example of phylum Platyhelminthes.

    Image Showing Example of Phylum Platyhelminthes.

    Image showing example of phylum Platyhelminthes.

  • Phylum Aschelminthes (Class nematoda): Triploblastic animals (3 germ layers). Body is bilaterally symmetrical and body cavity is a pseudocoelom. Organisms are mostly parasites having slender, elongated bodies, tapering at each end. It has a mouth, pharynx, intestine and anus. Sexes are separate, males smaller than females. Ascaris is a common round worm living in the intestine of humans. Example: Ascaris, Enterobius, Wuchereria, etc.

    Image showing example of Phylum Aschelminthes; Ascris and Wuchereria.

    Image Showing Example of Phylum Aschelminthes.

    Image showing example of Phylum Aschelminthes; Ascris and Wuchereria.