Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis:

Image showing comparison of mitosis and meiosis.



Cell divides only once

Two cell divisions; first and second meiotic division

Takes place in somatic cells

Takes place in germ cells

Occurs in both sexually as well as asexually reproducing organisms

Occurs only in sexually reproducing organisms

Interphase occurs prior to each division

Interphase proceeds only in meiosis-I. it does not occur prior to meiosis-II

DNA replication takes place during interphase –I

DNA replication takes place during interphase –I but not interphase –II

Duration of prophase is short (few hours)

Prophase comparatively longer (takes many days)

Prophase simple

Prophase having five sub-stages; leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis

The cell divides only once and the chromosomes also divide only once

There are two cell divisions but the chromosomes divide only once

Synapsis does not occur

Synapsis of homologous chromosomes takes place during prophase

No exchange of segments during prophase between two chromatids of chromosomes

Exchange of segments during crossing over between non-sister chromatids of two homologous chromosomes

Each chromosomes consists of two chromatids united by a centromere

Each bivalent has four chromatids and two centromeres

The arms of the prophase chromatids are close to one another

The arms of the chromatids are separated widely in prophase – II

Chromosomes are duplicated at the beginning of prophase

In prophase-I, chromosomes appear single although DNA, replication has taken place in interphase-I

No bouquet stage is recorded

Chromosomes of animals and some plants show convergence towards one side during early prophase – I. it is known as bouquet stage

Pairing of chromosomes does not occur in mitosis

Pairing or synapsis of chromosomes takes place during zygotene of prophase-I and continues upto metaphase-I

A synaptonemal complex is absent

Synapsed homologous chromosome develop a synaptonemal complex

Chiasmata are absent

Chiasmata or visible connections between homologous chromosomes are observed during diplotene, diakinesis (prophase-I) and metaphase-I

In metaphase all the centromeres line up in the same plane

In metaphase-I, the centromeres are lined up in two planes which are parallel to one another

The metaphase plate is made up of duplicated chromosome

The metaphase plate is made up of paired chromosome

The genetic constitution of the daughter cells is identical to that of the parent cells

The genetic constitution of the daughter cells differs from that of the parent cell. The chromosome of daughter cells usually contain a mixture of maternal and paternal genes

Centromere division takes place during anaphase

No centromere divisions during Anaphase-I, centromeres divide only during Anaphase-II

Anaphase chromosomes are single stranded

Chromosomes are double stranded in anaphase-I, but single stranded in anaphase-II

Spindle fibres disappear completely in telophase

Spindle fibres do not disappear completely during telophase-I

Reappearance of nucleoli at telophase

Nucleoli do not appear in telophase-I

The chromosome number does not change at the end of mitosis

There is reduction in the chromosome number from diploid to haploid

Cytokinesis follows every mitosis. It produces two new cells

Cytokinesis often does not occur after the first or reduction division. It is often simultaneous after second division to result in four new cells

Mitosis is of shorter duration

Meiosis is of longer duration

It is the basis of growth and repair

It is basis of maintaining chromosome number in sexual reproduction, as well as for providing variation in the progeny

The chromosome number remains constant at the end of mitosis

The chromosome number is reduced from the diploid to the haploid

Take part in healing and repair

Take part in the formation of meiospores or gametes and maintenance of chromosome number of the race

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