Fruits and Their Kinds

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After fertilization, the ovary of flower begins to grow and develops into the fruit. Hence a fruit may be regarded as a mature or ripened ovary. A fruit consists of two parts; the pericarp developed from the ovary wall and the seeds developed from the ovules. The wall of the ovary from the pericarp then differentiates into 3 parts;

Epicarp forms the outer skin,

Mesocarp forms the edible fleshy region and

Endocarp forms the innermost hard region that encloses the seed. In dry fruits pericarp is thin, papery or thick and woody but not divided into three regions.

True fruit: a true fruit develops from a ripened ovary, e.g. mango

False fruit: it is fruit in which the edible portion is not the wall of ovary but a floral part like thalamus. The thalamus becomes fleshy and succulent. The actual fruit lies within the pericarp and is thin and discarded, e.g. apple

Parthenocarpic fruit: a fruit that develops without fertilization from ovary is called parthenocarpic fruit. Fruit is generally seedless or has non-viable seeds, e.g. banana, grapes.

Kinds of fruits - There are three basic types

Simple fruits: they develop from syncarpous gynoecium of a single flower, e.g. pea, tomato

Aggregate fruits: they develop from Apocarpous gynoecium of a single flower, e.g. Calotropis

Composite or multiple fruits: they develop from an inflorescence, e.g. mulberry, pineapple

Simple fruits

Two types; dry fruits (dry membranous/leathery pericarp), fleshy/succulent fruits (fleshy pericarp)

Table showing types of simple dry and simle fleshy fruits.
Table showing types of simple dry and simle fleshy fruits.

Simple dry fruits

Indehiscent fruit (single seeded)

-Nut: hard and woody pericarp, e.g. Cashew nut, Litchi

-Cypsela: develops from inferior ovary(pericarp free), e.g. sunflower

-Caryopsis: develops from superior ovary(pericarp fused), e.g. wheat

-Samara: pericarp is winged, e.g. Hiptage, Holeoptela

Schizocarpic fruits (dehisce into one sided compartments)

-Cremocarp: dehisces into two mericarps, e.g. Coriandrum

-Regma: dehisces into three mericarps, e.g. Ricinus

-Carcerules: dehisces into four or more mericarps, e.g. Labiatae

-Lomentum: dehisces into 1 seeded segments, e.g. Acacia

Dehiscent fruits (many seeded)

-Follicle: develops from monocarpellary ovary and dehisces by single suture, e.g. Delphinium

-Legume: develops from monocarpellary ovary and dehisces by both the sutures from apex downward, e.g. pea, groundnut

-Siliqua: develops from bicarpellary, bilocular ovary, e.g. mustard

-Capsule: develops from bi to multicarpellary superior ovary e.g. bhindi

Simple fleshy fruits

-Berry: develops from a superior ovary, e.g. tomato, banana

-Pepo: develops from an inferior ovary, e.g. cucumber, watermelon

-Drupe: single seeded, stony endocarp, e.g. mango, coconut

-Hesperidium: epicarp and mesocarp fused to form the rind, e.g. Orange, lemon

-Pome: syncarpous and inferior ovary, e.g. apple, pear

-Balausta: carpels arranged in two rings, ovary inferior, hard pericarp, e.g. Pomegranate

Aggregate and Composite or multiple fruits

Table showing types of aggregate and multiple fruits.
Table showing types of aggregate and multiple fruits.

Aggregate fruits (develop from an Apocarpous ovary, each carpel develops into a simple fruit)

-Etaerio of achenes, e.g. Naravelia, Clematis, Ranunculus

-Etaerio of nuts, e.g. Nelumbo

-Etaerio of samaras, e.g. Liriodendron

-Etaerio of follicles, e.g. Cabomba, Magnolia, Michelia

-Etaerio of berries, e.g. Annona, Artabotrys

-Etaerio of drupes, e.g. Rubus

Composite or multiple fruits

-Sorosis: develops from spadix or catkin inflorescence, e.g. jack fruit, pineapple

-Syconus: develops from Hypanthodium inflorescence, e.g. Ficus

Common Fruits and their edible parts

Table showing common fruits and their edible parts.
Table showing common fruits and their edible parts.

Name

Type

Edible Part

Banana

Berry

Mesocarp and Endocarp

Date palm

Berry

Pericarp

Tomato

Berry

Pericarp, seed and Placentae

Apple

Pome

Fleshy thalamus

Pear

Pome

Fleshy thalamus

Coconut

Drupe

Endosperm

Mango

Drupe

Mesocarp

Custard Apple

Etaerio of Berries

Pericarp

Lotus

Etaerio of nuts

Cotyledons and thalamus

Strawberry

Etaerio of achenes

Succulent thalamus

Cashew Nut

Nut

Peduncle and Cotyledons

Litchi

Nut

Juicy aril

Orange

Hesperidium

Endocarpic hairs

Lemon

Hesperidium

Endocarpic hairs

Jack fruit

Sorosis

Outer axis, bract, perianth, seed

Pineapple

Sorosis

Outer axis, bract, perianth, pericarp

Ficus

Syconus

Fleshy receptacle

Monkey fruit

Syconus

Fleshy receptacle

Wheat

Caryopsis

Endosperm and embryo

Maize

Caryopsis

Endosperm and embryo

Coriander

Cremocarp

Entire fruit

Tamarind

Lomentum

Mesocarp

Gram

Legume

Seed

Green gram

Legume

Seed

Lady finger

Capsule

Entire fruit

Cucumber

Pepo

Mesocarp, endocarp, placenta, seed

Pumpkin

Pepo

Pericarp, cotyledons

Watermelon

Pepo

Mesocarp, endocarp, cotyledons

Pomegranate

Balausta

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