All records in a file have the same number of bytes. Such a file is called a flat file.
All records are expected to contain essentially the same quantity of data.
Use of variable length records conserves storage space.
Quantity of information, of various records in a file.
Data originates in the form of events transaction or some observations.
This data is then recorded in some usable form.
Data collection is also termed as data capture.
Converted from its source documents to a form that is more suitable for processing.
Data is first codified by assigning identification codes. For example:- An employee may be allotted a code as 52-53-162, his category as A class, etc. It is useful to codify data.
Data is collected and converted.
It is ready for the manipulation function which converts data into Information.
Arrangement of data items in a desired sequence.
For example: A simple act of sorting the names in alphabetical order gives meaning to a telephone directory. The directory will be practically worthless without sorting.
Arithmetic manipulation of data is called calculating.
Items of recorded data can be added to one another, subtracted, divided or multiplied.
Compare data is to perform an evaluation in relation to some known measure.
Many compare current sales figures.
Storage is essential for any organised method of processing and re-using data.
Storing activity involves storing data and information.
Organised manner in order to facilitate the retrieval activity.
Retrieve means to recover or find again the stored data or information.
Retrieval techniques use data storage devices.
Retrieval and comparison of old data gives meaning to current information.
Communication is the process of sharing information.
Information is made available to the users.
Reproduce is to copy or duplicate data or information.
Reproduction activity may be done by hand or by machine.