NCERT Computer: Chapter 4 – Operating System Part 6
7. Windows Most Common Tasks
The Menu Bar, Title Bar, Taskbar, Scroll Box, and three squares at top right are common to all windows, whether you have a Folder or File - Open or Close.
To start an application or access a file/folder you have to Open, when you finish you should Close. You have already learned about Taskbar.
We will discuss the other parts of window now.
1. Minimize, Maximize/Restore, and Close
The minus sign is Minimize. A minimized window is still open, and a window button appears on the Taskbar.
The double-square is Maximize/Restore. You can maximize the window of your file to fit the entire screen.
If you click again the application takes the usual size (you can see the Desktop behind) if you have several files opened, "maximizing" put them on top of each other so you can see only one file at the top, by "restoring" you will have all the files visible on the desktop, just choose one and start working: you can write and draw at the same time very easily. To close anything just press on ×.
2. Title Bar
The Title bar resides at the top of the screen. It displays the name of the program in which you are working. It also displays the name of the file or folder or drive you are working with.
You can also use Title bar for enlarging and reducing the window by double-clicking on the Title bar. Suppose you opened two or more windows (file, folder), to see in which one you are working, look at the Title bar and the Title bar shows the active window.
The advantage of Windows is that you can move the window and place it wherever you want; it is like moving a piece of paper on your actual desktop. Just click the mouse on the Title bar (the window should not be maximized; if it fits the screen you will not be able to move it) hold it and drag.
To drag an item you need to click on the Title bar, hold it, and then move the mouse. The whole process is called Drag and Drop. You can also move a window (if window is not Maximum) by right clicking on Title bar and selecting Move.
let you change the height, ? is for the Width. at the edge of the window let you resample - the ratio between Height and Width is a same.
3. The Scroll Bar
When you exceed the size of the Window, a vertical rectangle - Scroll bar - appears at your right. The same applies if you went over the Width limit, an horizontal Scroll box appears. To go through the text, just Drag the scroll bar until you reach the location, you can also click on the arrows at the edges of scroll bar to browse.
A Window cannot extend beyond the size of your screen; therefore, the scroll bar is the perfect solution to extend beyond the boundaries.
The size of the scroll bar (rectangle) indicates the length of the document.
4. Menu Bar
The most frequently used menu in Window is Start menu, which you have already learned. In addition to Start menu, there are many windows and programs that have their own sets of menus and commands.
8 Sharing Folders and Printers
You can share your documents (files) and printers attached to your computer with other people on the network. To use file and print sharing, you must first choose which of the following two types of access you want to give to other users:
a. Share-level access control is the default access setting. It lets you require a password for each shared resource.
b. User-level access control lets you specify who has access to each shared resource, but it does not require a password.
By default you will be having a Share-level access control. To change it to Userlevel access control, follow the steps given below:
i. Click Start, select Settings g Control Panel, and then double-click Network. Click the Access Control tab. The Network dialog box appears. Click on User-level access control.
ii. In Obtain list of users and groups from, type the name of the domain or server you want to use, and then click OK. You may be prompted to supply additional information about the domain or server you specified.
iii. Restart your computer.
To set up file-sharing and print sharing services, follow the steps given below:
i. Click Start, select, Settings g Control Panel, and then double-click Network. Click the Access Control tab. The Network dialog box appears. Click on File and Print Sharing
ii. Select the check box (es) the sharing options you want, click OK, and then click OK again. A message prompts you to insert your Windows CD or Setup disk so that File and Print Sharing can be installed. You must restart your computer before the new settings will take effect. After you have set up file-sharing services, you can share a folder or printer.
To share a folder with share-level access control, follow the steps given below:
In my Computer, right-click the folder you want to share, and then click Sharing in the submenu. Properties dialog box will appear. Click on the Sharing tab, and then click Shared As.
In Share Name, type a name for the folder. In Comment, you can type a brief comment or description of the folder.
In Access Type, click Read Only, or full depends on Password. Regardless of which type of access you select, you have the option of adding a password.
Type a password if you want to use one, and then click OK. Retype the password and then click OK. The folder or printer icon changes to a folder or printer with a hand, indicating that the item is now shared.
To share a folder with User-level access control, follow the step given below :
Follow the steps i. and ii. as stated above.
Click Add. In the Add Users dialog box, click the name(s) of the person(s) to whom you want to grant permission(s). You can scroll the list of users, or you can type the name and the list will scroll automatically. If you want to grant the same permission to everyone connected to your network, leave The World selected.
Click the type of access permissions you want to give to the selected user(s). Read Only means the user has the ability to read, but not change removes files. Full Access means the user has the ability to read, delete, and change file. Custom means the user has a combination of privileges that you specify.
When you are finished adding users’ permission, click OK.