Water Pollution

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Water pollution: Contamination of water bodies like rivers, ponds, oceans etc. with undesirable substances is called water pollution.

Water pollutants: Detergents, fertilizers and pesticides, chemicals and effluents

Image of Water Polution

Image of Water Polution

Image of Water Polution

Causes of Water Pollution:

  • Discharge from sewage treatment plants and sewage pipes from cities and towns.

  • Industrial effluents released by factories into water bodies.

  • Over utilization of chemicals like pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture.

  • Release of heated or radioactive water by power plants into water.

  • Oil spills and leakages from tankers and oil rigs during water-way transportation.

  • Growth of algae in water bodies.

Harmful Effects of Water Pollution:

  • Danger to aquatic living organisms this lead to disturbance in the food chain of ecosystem.

  • Encourage waterborne diseases like Cholera, Typhoid and Diarrhea etc.

  • Toxic chemicals may alter the acidity and conductivity of water which may cause death to human beings.

  • Many skin related problems.

Control of Water pollution:

  • Disposal of sewage water after proper sewage treatment.

  • Avoid the use of fertilizers before rain

  • Segregation of wastes (radio-active elements) before they deliver into water bodies.

Noise Pollution:

Noise pollution: Noise pollution is an excessive and displeasing environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.

Sources of Noise Pollution:

  • Vehicular traffic, like cars, buses, airplanes, trains etc.

  • Industrial processes like stone crushing, making of steel plates, sawing, printing, etc.

  • Construction works like roads, buildings etc.

  • Various household activities like celebrations of festivals using crackers and Music Rock Bands.

Effects of Noise Pollution:

  • Temporary or permanent loss of hearing due to high noise pollution.

  • Causes physical illness like hypertension, cardio vascular problems and high blood pressure.

  • Also causes mental illness like headache, lack of sleep etc.

Control Measures:

  • Need to reduce utilization of substances like crackers

  • Vehicles should reduce noise levels by keeping them in proper condition.

  • Traffic should be handled properly.

  • Construction and industrial activities should keep sound absorbers to reduce noise.

Soil Pollution:

Soil Pollution: Contamination or degradation of soil with undesirable substances is called Soil pollution. This is also called as Soil Degradation.

Causes of Soil Degradation:

  • Excessive use of chemicals like fertilizers and pesticides.

  • Excessive use of plastics

  • Overgrazing by animals in the fields.

Effects of Soil Degradation:

  • Reduce the yield potential of the soil due to lack of humus (natural nutrients and organic matter in soil).

  • Lead to pollution of ground water due to excess chemicals in soil.

  • Contamination of food due to chemicals that may result diseases and death.

  • Imbalance of biodiversity due to extinction of certain plants and animals.

Habitat Degradation: It is the process in which habitats lose their normal functioning or quality support native life. This leads to a reduced carrying capacity of animals or plants in that particular area.

Causes of Habitat Degradation:

  • Deforestation and wood extraction for the timber industry.

  • Conversion of forest land into agricultural land and for construction of houses.

  • Slashing or slash-and-burn agricultural methods, where forests are burnt and crops grown using the ashes as a natural fertilizer.

Effects of Habitat Degradation:

  • Imbalance in biodiversity. That leads to extinction of certain plants and animals.

  • Lead to natural disasters like floods, drought, crop failure and water contamination.